1st Edition

Urban Landscape

Edited By

Anita Berrizbeitia

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ISBN 9780415706957
Published March 16, 2015 by Routledge
1578 Pages 159 B/W Illustrations


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Book Description

This is a set that brings together scholarly work on historical, conceptual, and technical aspects of the urban landscape. The role of landscape, as recreational, public, social, ecological, infrastructural and experiential component of the urban environment has been increasingly recognized during the past decade. The traditional conception of the ‘urban’ as something that is made of streets and building facades has been replaced by a more complex notion that is inclusive of landscape as a generative and foundational component of the city itself.

As cities have continued to expand into metropolitan areas, landscapes have played a key role in the organization of urban territories. This set reflects the role that landscapes have played in the ongoing evolution of cities, from industrial to service based economies. Making readily available in one place materials which are difficult for scholars, researchers, and students across the globe to locate and use, this treasure trove of information includes global scholarship, supplemented with a comprehensive introduction by the editor which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context.

Table of Contents

Introduction to the Series Anita Berrizbeitia

Visual Index Anita Berrizbeitia, Senta Burton, and Pablo Perez-Ramos


Introduction to Volume I

Part 1: Systems of Cities

1. Paul M. Hohenberg and Lynn Hollen Lees, ‘Systems of Early Cities’, in The Making of Urban Europe 1000-1950, (Harvard University Press, 1985), pp. 47-73, notes 350.

2. Patrick Geddes, ‘The Third of the Talks from the Outlook Tower: The Valley Plan of Civilization’ and ‘The Fourth of the Talks from the Outlook Tower: The Valley in the Town’, The Survey, Graphic Number, 54, 6/7, 1925, pp. 288-290, 322-323, 325, 396-400, 415-416.

3. Louis Wirth, ‘Urbanism as a Way of Life’, The American Journal of Sociology, 44, 1, 1938, pp. 1-24.

Part 2: Urbanizing Natural Systems

4. Richard C. Hoffmann, ‘Economic Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in Medieval Europe’, American Historical Review, 101, 3, 1996, pp. 631-669.

5. Charles S. Sargent, ‘Boston’s Proposed Metropolitan Park System’, Garden and Forest , February 8, 1893, pp. 61-62.

6. Benton MacKaye, ‘Regional City vs. Metropolis’ and ‘Controlling the Metropolitan Invasion’, in The New Exploration: a Philosophy of Regional Planning, (Harcourt Brace & Co., 1928), pp. 159-167, 168-200.

7. S.T.A Pickett, M.L. Cadenasso, J.M. Grove, C.H. Nilon, R.V. Pouyat, W.C. Zipperer and R. Costanza, ‘Urban Ecological Systems: Linking Terrestrial Ecological, Physical, and Socioeconomic Components of Metropolitan Areas’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, 2001, pp. 127-157.

Part 3: Constructing Landscape Systems

8. Abel Wolman, ‘The Metabolism of Cities’, Scientific American, 213, 3, 1965, pp. 178-190.

9. Dolly Jørgensen, ‘Cooperative Sanitation: Managing Streets and Gutters in Late Medieval England and Scandinavia’, Technology and Culture, 49, 3, 2008, pp. 547-567.

10. Katherine Wentworth Rinne, ‘Hydraulic Infrastructure and Urbanism in Early Modern Rome’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 73, 2005, pp. 191-222.

11. Antoine Picon, ‘Constructing Landscape by Engineering Water’, in Institute for Landscape Architecture, ETH Zurich (ed.), Landscape Architecture in Mutation: Essays on Urban Landscapes, (gta Verlag, 2005), pp. 99-115.

12. Pierre Bélanger, ‘Landscape as Infrastructure’, Landscape Journal, 28, 1, 2009, pp. 79-95.

13. Keller Easterling, ‘Redundancy and Interstice: Transcontinental and Intercity Networks’, in Organization Space: landscapes, highways, and houses in America, (MIT Press, 1999), pp. 85-97.

14. Michael Hough, ‘City Farming’, in Cities and Natural Process, (Routledge, 1995), pp. 203-243, notes 297-299.

15. Clare Lyster, ‘Landscapes of Exchange: Re-Articulating Site’, in C. Waldheim (ed.), The Landscape Urbanism Reader, (Princeton Architectural Press, 2006), pp. 219-237.


Introduction to Volume II

Part 4: Planning the Urban Landscape

16. Leon Battista Alberti, excerpts from ‘The Fourth Book, on Public works’ from De Re Aedificatoria (1452), in J. Rykwert, N. Leach, and R. Tavernor (eds.), On the Art of Building in Ten Books, (MIT Press, 1988), pp. 95-101, 105-107, 113-114 and notes 379-383.

17. Andrea Palladio, excerpts from ‘The Third Book of Architecture’ from Quattro libri dell'architettura (1570), in R. Tavernor and R. V. Schofield (trans.), The Four Books on Architecture, (MIT Press, 1997), pp. 165-168, 170, 193-194, and notes 364-8.

18. Philip II of Spain, ‘The Laws of the Indies: Ordinances for the Discovery, the Population and the Pacification of the Indies’ (El Ordén que se ha de Thener en Descubrir y Poblar, Transcripción de las Ordenananzas de descubrimiento, nueva población y pacificación de las Indias dadas por Felipe II, 1573), A. Mundigo and D. Crouch (trans.), in J.F. Lejeune (ed.), Cruelty & Utopia: Cities and Landscapes of Latin America, (Princeton Architectural Press, 2005), pp. 18-23.

19. Arturo Soria Y Puig, ‘Ildefonso Cerdá's General Theory of 'Urbanización'’, The Town Planning Review, 66, 1, 1995, pp. 15-39.

20. David Mah, ‘The Eixample Example’, 2014 (original material).

21. Frederick Law Olmsted, ‘Public Parks and the Enlargement of Towns,’ in Public Parks: Being Two Papers Read Before the American Social Science Association in 1870 and 1880, Entitled, Respectively, Public Parks and the Enlargement of Towns and A Consideration of the Justifying Value of a Public Park. (1902), pp. 11-13, 16-27, 30-41, 47-53, 66-68, 73-75.

22. Horace William Shaler Cleveland, ‘Public Parks, Radial Avenues and Boulevards: Outline Plan of a Park System, for the City of St. Paul’, (St. Paul: Globe Job Office, 1885), pp. 9-15, 23-29. [transcripts of lectures given June 24th 1872 and June 19th 1885]

23. Ian McHarg, ‘An Ecological Method for Landscape Architecture’, Landscape Architecture, 57, 2, 1967, pp. 105-107.

24. Richard T. T. Forman, ‘Land Planning and Management’, in Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions, (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 435-480, ref. pp. 525-604.

Part 5: Designing the Urban Landscape

25. Édouard François André, ‘Division and Classification of Gardens’ (‘Division et Classification des Jardins’), G. Shapiro (trans.) (original material, 2014), from L'Art des Jardins: Traité Général de la Composition des Parcs et Jardins’, (G. Masson, 1879), pp. 184-200.

26. Patrick Abercrombie, ‘Planning of Town and Country: The Contrast of Civic and Landscape Design’, The Town Planning Review, 14, 1, 1930, pp. 1-12.

27. Henry Arnold, ‘Principles,’ in Trees in Urban Design, (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980), pp. 39-45.

28. Charles Mulford Robinson, ‘Parkways’ and ‘Distribution and Location of Parks’, in Modern Civic Art or The City Made Beautiful, (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904), pp. 307-320, 321-336.

29. Kevin Lynch, ‘The City Image and its Elements’, in The Image of the City, (MIT Press, 1960), pp. 46-52, 54-55, 57, 59-60, 70, 72-75, 78-86, 90.

30. Kevin Lynch, ‘The Analysis of Site and Purpose’, in Site Planning, (MIT Press, 1962), pp. 9-25.

31. Jane Jacobs, ‘Downtown is for people’, in the editors of Fortune and W.H. Whyte (eds.), The Exploding Metropolis, (Doubleday & Company, 1958), pp. 157-165, 172-184.

32. Alex Wall, ‘Programming the Urban Surface’, in J. Corner (ed.), Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, (Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), pp. 233-249.

Part 6: Ecology and the Urban Landscape

33. Anne Whiston Spirn, ‘The Role of Natural Processes in the Design of Cities’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 451, Changing Cities: A Challenge to Planning, 1980, pp. 98-105.

34. Wenche E. Dramstad, James D. Olson, and Richard T.T. Forman, ‘Part 1: Principles’, in Landscape Ecology: Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land-use Planning, (Island Press, 1996), pp. 19-46, notes 71-79.

35. Michael Hough, ‘Urban Ecology: A Basis for Shaping Cities’, in Cities and Natural Process, (Routledge, 1995), pp. 5-32, notes 287-88.

36. Kongjian Yu, Hailong Li, and Dihua Li, ‘Ecological Infrastructure as a Tool for Smart Preservation and Smart Growth’, 44th ISOCARP Congress, 2008.

37. Elizabeth Meyer, ‘Sustaining beauty. The performance of appearance. A manifesto in three parts’, Journal of Landscape Architecture, Spring 2008, pp. 6-23.


Introduction to Volume III

Part 7: Typological and Morphological Approaches to the Urban Landscape

38. Patrick Bowe, ‘Civic and other Public Planting in Ancient Greece’, Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly, 31, 4, 2011, pp. 269–285.

39. Brian Spooner, ‘City and River in Iran: Urbanization and Irrigation of the Iranian Plateau‘, Iranian Studies, 7, 3/4, Studies on Isfahan: Proceedings of the Isfahan Colloquium, Part II, 1974, pp. 681-713.

40. Yinong Xu, ‘Boundaries, centres and peripheries in Chinese gardens: a case of Suzhou in the eleventh century’, Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly, 24, 1, 2004, pp. 21-37.

41. Anuradha Mathur, ‘Neither Wilderness nor Home: The Indian Maidan’, in J. Corner (ed.), Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, (Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), pp. 205-219.

42. Paul J. Kaldjian, ‘Istanbul's Bostans: A Millennium of Market Gardens’ in Geographical Review, 94, 3, People, Places, & Gardens, 2004, pp. 284-304.

43. David Nicholas, ‘The Morphology of the Urban Plan’, in Urban Europe, 1100-1700, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp. 62-91, notes xii, 199-201.

44. Henry W. Lawrence, ‘The Greening of the Squares in London: Transformations of Urban Landscapes and Ideals’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83, 1, 1993, pp. 90-118.

45. Gideon Fink Shapiro, ‘Alphand and the Urbanization of Garden Art in Paris’, 2014 (original material).

46. David Schuyler, ‘The Ideology of the Public Park’ and ‘Parks, Parkways, and Park Systems’, in The New Urban Landscape: the Redefinition of City Form in Nineteenth-Century America, (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), pp. 59-67, 126-131, 139-146, notes 206-209, 216-218.

47. Sonja Dümpelmann, ‘Layered Landscapes: Parks and Gardens in the Metropolis’, in D. Brantz, S. Disko, and G. Wagner-Kyora (eds.), Thick Space: Approaches to Metropolitanism, (Transcript Verlag, 2012), pp. 213-235.

48. Charles Waldheim, ‘Detroit, Disabitato and the Origins of Landscape’, in J. Czerniak (ed.), Formerly Urban, (Princeton Architectural Press and Syracuse University School of Architecture, 2013), pp. 165-183.

49. Silvia Benedito, ‘Landscape and Atmospheres: Microenvironments for Well-Being and Delight’, 2014 (original material).

Part 8: Representation and the Urban Landscape

50. Keith D. Lilley, ‘Cities of God? Medieval Urban Forms and Their Christian Symbolism’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, 29, 3, 2004, pp. 296-313.

51. Antoine Picon, ‘Nineteenth-century Urban Cartography and the Scientific Ideal - The Case of Paris’, Osiris, 2nd Series, 18, Science and the City, 2003, pp. 135-149.

52. Peter G. Rowe, ‘The Civic, the Real, and the Specific’ and ‘Civic Realism as a Constellation of Conceptual Dimensions’, in Civic Realism, (MIT Press, 1997), pp. 203-218, notes 241-2.

53. Henri Lefebvre, ‘Space: Social Product and Use Value’ (‘L'espace : produit social et valeur d'usage’, 1976), J.W. Freiberg (trans.), in J.W. Freiberg (ed.), Critical Sociology: European Perspectives, (NY: Irvington Publishers, 1979), pp. 285-295. [original text published in La nouvelle revue socialiste, 18, 1976]

54. Chris Reed and Nina-Marie Lister, ‘Parallel Genealogies’, in Projective Ecologies, (Harvard GSD and ACTAR, 2013), pp.


Introduction to Volume IV

Part 9: Environmental Challenges

55. Richard Dawson, ‘Re-Engineering Cities: A Framework for Adaptation to Global Change’, Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 365, 1861, Chemistry and Engineering, 2007, pp. 3085-3097.

56. G. Mills, H. Cleugh, R. Emmanuel, W. Endlicher, E. Erell, G. McGranahan, E. Ng, A. Nickson, J. Rosenthal and K. Steemer, ‘Climate Information for Improved Planning and Management of Mega Cities (Needs Perspective)’, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 1, 2010, pp. 228–246.

57. N. LeRoy Poff, ‘Ecological Response to and Management of Increased Flooding Caused by Climate Change’, Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 360, 1796, Flood Risk in a Changing Climate, 2002, pp.1497-1510.

58. Joyce Klein Rosenthal, Elliott D. Sclar, Patrick L. Kinney, Kim Knowlton, Robert Crauderueff, and Paul W. Brandt-Rauf, ‘Links between the Built Environment, Climate and Population Health: Interdisciplinary Environmental Change Research in New York City’, Annals Academy of Medicine, 36, 10, 2007, pp. 834-846.

59. Margaret M. Carreiro and Christopher E. Tripler, ‘Forest Remnants along Urban-Rural Gradients: Examining Their Potential for Global Change Research’, Ecosystems, 8, 5, 2005, pp. 568-582.

60. Sophia Jane Findlay and Mark Patrick Taylor, ‘Why Rehabilitate Urban River Systems?’, Area, 38, 3, 2006, pp. 312-325.

61. Richard T.T. Forman and Lauren Alexander, ‘Roads and their Major Ecological Effects’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, 1998, pp. 207-231.

62. Jill Desimini, ‘Deciphering the Urban Wild: Remnant and Re-emergent’, 2014 (original material).

63. Alexander J. Felson, ‘The Role of Designers in Creating Wildlife Habitat in the Built Environment’, in J. Beardsley (ed.), Designing Wildlife Habitat, (Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2013), pp. 215-240.

64. Peter Del Tredici, ‘The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World’, in M. Conan and W. J. Kress (eds.), Botanical Progress, Horticultural Innovation, and Cultural Changes (Dumbarton Oaks, 2007), pp. 265-271.

65. Robert E. Loeb, ‘Diversity gained, diversity lost: long-term changes in woody plants in Central Park, New York City and Fairmount Park, Philadelphia’, Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly, 30, 2, 2010, pp. 124-151.

66. Henry Arnold, ‘Sustainable Trees for Sustainable Cities’, Arnoldia, 53, 3, 1993, pp. 4-12.

67. Gregory Alexander Donofrio, ‘Feeding the City’, Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture, 7, 4, 2007, pp. 30-41.

68. Alan Berger, ‘The Production of Waste Landscape’, in Drosscape: wasting land in urban America, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006), pp. 46-75.

69. Niall Kirkwood, ‘Brownfields 2020: Rethinking the Post-Industrial Landscape (again)’, lecture transcript, 2010.

70. Peter Harnik, Michael Taylor and Ben Welle, ‘Dumps to Destinations’, Places, 18, 1, 2006, pp. 83-88.

71. Antoine Picon and Karen Bates, ‘Anxious Landscapes: From the Ruin to Rust’, Grey Room, 1, 2000, pp. 64-83.

72. Ryan, Brent and Bello, Lorena, ‘The Fiscal Topography of a Shrinking City’, Perspecta, Fall, 2014, pp.

73. Christian Werthmann, ‘The Reclamation of Roofs’, in Green Roof: a case study, (Princeton Architectural Press, 2007), pp. 18-46.

Part 10: Social Challenges

74. Richard Sennett, ‘The Open City’, in Berlin: Towards an Urban Age, Urban Age conference newspaper, LSE Cities / Urban Age, London School of Economics and Political Science, 2006.

75. Don Mitchell and Richard Van Deusen, ‘Downsview Park: Open Space or Public Space?’, in J. Czerniak (ed.), Case: Downsview Park Toronto, (Prestel and Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2001), pp. 102-115.

76. Margaret Crawford, ‘Contesting the Public Realm: Struggles over Public Space in Los Angeles’, Journal of Architectural Education, 49, 1, 1995, pp. 4-9.

77. Susan Fainstein, ‘Planning and the just city’, in P. Marcuse (ed.), Searching for the just city: debates in urban theory and practice, (Routledge, 2009), pp. 19-39.

78. Jerold Kayden, ‘Using and Misusing Law to Design the Public Realm’, in T. Szold and E. Ben-Joseph (eds.), Regulating Place: Standards and the Shaping of Urban America, (Routledge, 2005), pp. 115-140.

79. Karen Schmelzkopf, ‘Urban Community Gardens as Contested Space’, Geographical Review, 85, 3, 1995, pp. 364-381.

80. Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Informal Cities, Multiple Realities,’ in A. Brillembourg, K. Feireiss, 
H. Klumpner (eds.), Informal City: Caracas Case, (Prestel, 2005), pp. 79-82.

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