Globally, 30% of the world population lived in urban areas in 1950, 54% in 2016 and 66% projected by 2050. The most urbanized regions include North America, Latin America, and Europe. Urban encroachment depletes soil carbon and the aboveground biomass carbon pools, enhancing the flux of carbon from soil and vegetation into the atmosphere. Thus, urbanization has exacerbated ecological and environmental problems.
Urban soils are composed of geological material that has been drastically disturbed by anthropogenic activities and compromised their role in the production of food, aesthetics of residential areas, and pollutant dynamics. Properties of urban soils are normally not favorable to plant growth—the soils are contaminated by heavy metals and are compacted and sealed. Therefore, the quality of urban soils must be restored to make use of this valuable resource for delivery of essential ecosystem services (e.g., food, water and air quality, carbon sequestration, temperature moderation, biodiversity).
Part of the Advances in Soil Sciences Series, Urban Soils explains properties of urban soils; assesses the effects of urbanization on the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and water and the impacts of management of urban soils, soil restoration, urban agriculture, and food security; evaluates ecosystem services provisioned by urban soils, and describes synthetic and artificial soils.
Chapter 1 Urban Agriculture in the 21st Century. Rattan Lal
Chapter 2 Urban Soil Mapping through the United States National Cooperative Soil Survey. Luis Hernandez, Maxine Levin, Joe Calus, John Galbraith, Edwin Muñiz, Kristine Ryan, Randy Riddle, Richard K. Shaw, Robert Dobos, Steve Peaslee, Susan Southard, Debbie Surabian, and David Lindbo
Chapter 3 Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Stocks by Urbanization. V.I. Vasenev, J.J. Stoorvogel, A.V. Dolgikh, N.D. Ananyeva, K.V. Ivashchenko, and R. Valentini
Chapter 4 Drivers of Urban Soil Carbon Dynamics. Tara L.E. Trammell, Susan Day, Richard V. Pouyat, Carl Rosier, Bryant Scharenbroch, and Ian Yesilonis
Chapter 5 Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling and Ecosystem Service in Cities. Weixing Zhu, Beth A. Egitto, Ian D. Yesilonis, and Richard V. Pouyat
Chapter 6 Urban Soil Carbon Storage. Bryant Scharenbroch, Susan Day, Tara Trammell, and Richard Pouyat
Chapter 7 Sealing Effects on Properties of Urban Soils. Przemysław Charzyn´ski, Piotr Hulisz, Anna Piotrowska-Długosz, Dariusz Kamin´ski, and Andrzej Plak
Chapter 8 Contaminants in Urban Soils: Bioavailability and Transfer. Dorothy S. Menefee and Ganga M. Hettiarachchi
Chapter 9 Optimizing the Hydrologic Properties of Urban Soils. Mary G. Lusk and Gurpal S. Toor
Chapter 10 Making Soils from Urban Wastes. Sally Brown
Chapter 11 Properties of Soils Affected by Highways. Michele Bigger
Chapter 12 An Applied Hydropedological Perspective on the Rendering of Ecosystem Services from Urban Soils. William D. Shuster and Stephen Dadio
Chapter 13 Biogeochemistry of Rooftop Farm Soils. Yoshiki Harada, Thomas H. Whitlow, Nina L Bassuk, and Jonathan Russell-Anelli
Chapter 14 Managing Urban Soils for Food Production. Klaus Lorenz
Chapter 15 Vertical Farming Using Hydroponics and Aeroponics. Dickson Despommier
Chapter 16 Soils and Waste Management in Urban India. Simi Mehta, Arjun Kumar, and Rattan Lal
Chapter 17 Enhancing Awareness about the Importance of Urban Soils. Christina Siebe, Silke Cram, and Lucy Mora Palomino
Chapter 18 Feeding Megacities by Urban Agriculture. Rattan Lal