Urban Wildlife Management  book cover
3rd Edition

Urban Wildlife Management

ISBN 9781032097961
Published June 30, 2021 by CRC Press
618 Pages 214 Color Illustrations

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Book Description

Winner of the 2018 TWS Wildlife Publication Awards in the authored book category

Urban development is one of the leading worldwide threats to conserving biodiversity. In the near future, wildlife management in urban landscapes will be a prominent issue for wildlife professionals. This new edition of Urban Wildlife Management continues the work of its predecessors by providing a comprehensive examination of the issues that increase the need for urban wildlife management, exploring the changing dynamics of the field while giving historical perspectives and looking at current trends and future directions.

The book examines a range of topics on human interactions with wildlife in urbanized environments. It focuses not only on ecological matters but also on political, economic, and societal issues that must be addressed for successful management planning. This edition features an entirely new section on urban wildlife species, including chapters on urban communities, herpetofauna, birds, ungulates, mammals, carnivores, and feral and introduced species.

The third edition features

  • Five new chapters

  • 12 updated chapters

  • Four new case studies

  • Seven new appendices and species profiles

  • 90 new figures

  • A comprehensive analysis of terrestrial vertebrate locations by state and urban observations

Each chapter opens with a set of key concepts which are then examined in the following discussions. Suggested learning experiences to enhance knowledge conclude each chapter. The species profiles cover not only data about the animal concerned but also detail significant current management issues related to the species.

An updated and expanded teaching tool, Urban Wildlife Management, Third Edition identifies the challenges and opportunities facing wildlife in urban communities as well as factors that promote or threaten their presence. It gives both students and professionals a solid grounding in the required fundamental ecological principles for understanding the effects of human-made environments on wildlife.

Table of Contents

Introduction: A New Wildlife Management Paradigm
A Snapshot of the Urban Wildlife Management Landscape
Changing Wildlife Values
The Need for a Comprehensive Treatment of Urban Wildlife Management
Understanding and Meeting the Future Challenges of Wildlife Management
Literature Review Limitations
Nature in Human-Dominated Landscapes
Chapter Activities
Case Study I.1: Literature Review on Urban Deer Research
Sidebar I.1: Wildlife Hotline Quiz
Sidebar I.2: Job Description of an Urban Wildlife Biologist
Appendix I.1: Answers to Wildlife Hotline Quiz


Wildlife Management: Past and Present
Key Concepts
Brief History of Wildlife Management in North America
Rise the American Conservation Movement
Demographic Factors That Set the Stages for Urban Wildlife Management
Separation of People and Nature
Reconnecting People and Nature
A New Kind of Wildlife
Chapter Activities
Species Profile: Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous)
Perspective Essay 1.1: Human–Wildlife Interactions in the 1950s
Perspective Essay 1.2: Human–Wildlife Interactions in the 1970s

Principal Components of Urban Wildlife Management
Key Concepts
Urban Habitats as a Dominant Focus of Wildlife Professionals
Need for Wildlife Management in Urban Areas
Traditional and Alternative Methods of Human–Wildlife Conflict Management
Need for Public Education Programs about Urban Wildlife, Management, and Habitats
Alternative Curriculums to Train Urban Wildlife Biologists
Wildlife Management Research Agenda
Naturalist and Natural History
Infrastructure for Urban Wildlife Management Is Missing
Chapter Activities
Case Study 2.1: Neighborhood Moose Killed by Kindness
Perspective Essay 2.1: The Texas Master Naturalist Program
Species Profile: Bobcat (Lynx rufus)
Appendix 2.1: Numbers of Amphibian, Reptile, Bird, and Mammalian Species by State
Appendix 2.2: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals Reported as Intakes at 17 Animal Rehabilitation Centers Throughout the United States


Ecological Principles in an Urban Context
Key Concepts
Urban Context
Ecological Principles
Ecosystem Structure
Food Chains and Webs
Symbiotic Relationships
Biotic Communities
Ecosystem Function
Ecosystem Services
Ecology of Urban Ecosystems
Even a Peanut Butter Sandwich Has Profound Environmental Impacts
Chapter Activities
Species Profile: Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)

Urban Soils
Key Concepts
Soil Formation
Soil Structure
Soil Horizons
Soil Functions
Soil Biota and Their Functions
Impacts of Urbanization on Soil Structure and Function
Taking Better Care of Urban Soil
Urban Wildlife Management Implications
Chapter Activities
Species Profile: Moles (Talpidae sp.)
Perspective Essay 4.1: Darwin’s Earthworms
Perspective Essay 4.2: Home Composting on a Small Scale

Urban Aquatic Systems
Key Concepts
Flow of Water through an Urban Community
Water Cycle: Nature’s Filter
Caring for the Water Cycle
Riparian Corridors: Streams and Rivers
Urban Stream Syndrome
Aquatic Food Chain
Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Fish as Indicator Species
Invasive and Introduced Species
Restoration of Riparian Habitats
Urban Wetlands
Urban (Community) Fisheries Programs
Chapter Activities
Case Study 5.1: Controlling Exotic Flora with Exotic Fauna
Species Profile: American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

Population Dynamics
Key Concepts
Factors Affecting Population Densities
How Populations Grow
Population Growth Rate Patterns
Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Population Dynamics
Effects of Supplemental Feeding on Population Dynamics
Effects of Animal Damage Control Activities on Population Dynamics
Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Wildlife Population Dynamics
Chapter Activity
Species Profile: Tree Squirrels (Sciurus spp.)


Urban Green Spaces
Key Concepts
Green Spaces
Remnant Habitat Patches
Successional Habitat Patches
Managed Habitat Patches
Chapter Activities
Perspective Essay 7.1: Birds in Texas Cemeteries
Perspective Essay 7.2: For the Love of Lawns
Species Profile: Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)

Urban Gray Spaces
Key Concepts
Buildings, Windows, and Towers
Roads and Highways
Bridges, Birds, and Bats
Landfills, Dumpsters, and Garbage Cans
Chapter Activities
Species Profile: Mexican Free-Tailed Bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)


Urban Herpetofauna (Amphibians and Reptiles)
Key Concepts
Chapter Activities
Species Profile 9.1: Gray Tree Frog (Hyla versicolor)
Species Profile 9.2: Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis)
Appendix 9.1: State Totals of Amphibians and Reptiles and Numbers of Each Class Observed in Urban Communities

Urban Birds
Key Concepts
Class Aves Taxonomy of Living Orders in the United States
Distinguishing Characteristics and Life Cycle
Management for Birds in Urban Habitats
National Distribution by States
Urban Observations
Chapter Activities
Species Profile: Common Poorwill (Chordeiles minor)
Appendix 10.1: State Totals of Birds and Numbers of Each Species Observed in Urban Communities Somewhere in the United States

Urban Mammals
Key Concepts
Class Mammalia Taxonomy
Distinguishing Characteristics and Life Cycle
Management for Mammals in Urban Habitats
National Distribution by States
Urban Observations
Urban Raccoons (Procyon lotor)
Urban Coyotes (Canis latrans)
Chapter Activities
Species Profile: California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)
Appendix 11.1: State Totals of Mammals and Numbers of Each Species Observed in Urban Communities Somewhere in the United States

Urban Threatened, Endangered, and Extirpated Species
Key Concepts
Diversity of T/E Species
Chapter Activities

Urban Introduced and Invasive Species
Key Concepts
Introduced Species
Invasive and Feral Species Introductions
Case Studies of Invasive Species
Case Studies of Feral Species
Invasive Species Management Plans
Chapter Activities
Species Profile: Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus)

Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer
Key Concepts
Factors That Contributed to Geese and Deer Abundance in Urban America
Extent of the Problem: A National Assessment
Distribution of Resident Canada Geese and White-Tailed Deer in the Continental United States
Human Response to Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer
Ecological Impacts of Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer
Health and Safety Issues
Management Strategies for Overabundant Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer Populations
Chapter Activity
Case Study 14.1: A Tale of Two Cities


Human Dimensions of Urban Wildlife Management
Key Concepts
The "People Factor"
Conducting Human Dimensions Research
Surveying Wildlife Recreationists
Role of Human Dimensions in Urban Wildlife Management
Working with Urban Stakeholders
Chapter Activities
Perspective Essay 15.1: Urbanites’ Fear of the Natural World around Them
Case Study 15.1: Stakeholders Disagree on Best Approach for Managing Fallow Deer

Legal Aspects of Urban Wildlife Management
Key Concepts
Wildlife Law 101
Federal Laws
State Laws
County and Municipal Laws
Local Ordinances
Who’s in Charge Here?
Chapter Activities
Sidebar 16.1: New Berlin vs. Hagar
Sidebar 16.2: Urban Wildlife Damage Principles
Species Profile: Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

Zoonoses and Management Considerations
Key Concepts
What Are Zoonoses?
Wildlife and Weaponization of Zoonotic Diseases
Parasitic Diseases
Mycotic Diseases
Bacterial Diseases
Viral Diseases
Prion Diseases
Chapter Activities
Species Profile: American Robin (Turdus migratorius)

Appendix: Lists of Terrestrial Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals by States and Those Observed in Urbanized Communities in the United States
Sources of Information on National, State, and Urban Lists of Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals


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Clark E. Adams is an emeritus professor in the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences (WFSC) at Texas A&M University in College Station. He earned his PhD in zoology from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and completed a 51-year teaching and research career on August 31, 2015. He chaired the Conservation Education Committee for The Wildlife Society (TWS), edited the newsletter for the Human Dimensions of Wildlife Study Group, was a member of the Urban Wildlife Management Working Group, and has chaired many committees for the Texas Chapter of TWS. He is a former president of the Texas Chapter of TWS and as well as the Southwest Section of TWS. Since 1981, he and his students have conducted and published many national, regional, and statewide studies on the public’s activities, attitudes, expectations, and knowledge concerning wildlife. He developed the degree option in urban wildlife and fisheries management for the WFSC and developed and taught the senior-level urban wildlife management course. He received the 2015 Outstanding Achievement in Urban Wildlife Conservation award from the TWS Urban Wildlife Working Group. He is also the coauthor of Texas Rattlesnake Roundups.


As urban areas expand into surrounding natural habitat, there are inevitably more interactions between humans and wildlife. In this third edition, Adams (emer., wildlife and fisheries sciences, Texas A&M Univ., College Station) updates a work that filled a void no comprehensive treatment of the subject had previously existed. Significant enhancements to previous editions (CH, Oct'06, 44-0909) include five new chapters, four case studies, seven appendixes/species profiles, and 90 figures. Additional research and data mining contribute a significant amount of new information to this edition. New chapters highlight special management considerations for various types of urban vertebrates. A short profile of an urban species follows each chapter. Though examples and case studies are heavily focused on the United States, the general principles can apply to urban wildlife in any area of the world. Designed to serve as a textbook, this volume synthesizes current information and is the standard text on this subject. It can also serve as a general resource for those interested in this topic. More than 1,000 references fill 41 pages. A similar book, Urban Wildlife Conservation (CH, Jul'15, 52-5883) complements this title, but Adams's work serves as a better introduction to the subject.

--C. E. Buckley, Illinois State University

Summing Up: Essential. All readers.CHOICE