Since the "Opening Up" period of 1978-80, China has urbanized with unprecedented speed. The construction of completely new cities and the dramatic redevelopment of existing urban centers have completely transformed the Chinese landscape. This urban revolution has generated an astonishing number and size of cities, undertaken with little thought for environmental and social consequences. Scholars striving to understand and analyze these remarkable and often contradictory urban phenomena have contributed to a large English language literature in multiple disciplines (geography, sociology, political science, urban planning, architecture, anthropology, and history). Since 1980, this literature has evolved alongside changes in the Chinese city, charting alterations in central government policies, municipal decision-making, and development practices along with their spatial outcomes. A key issue has been obsolescence. Keeping up with these transformations requires continuous research and revision, producing a literature rich in detailed studies of specific cities and regions but with few comprehensive works. Thus, the collection format is ideally suited for this body of scholarly research.
This collection, organized chronologically and thematically, will allow students, professors and scholars easy access to key works on Chinese urbanization covering a range of topics across three decades of research. This will clarify the shifting and often confusing terrain of urban scholarship on China. We will survey leading authorities in the field to identify the most significant and relevant contributions to the scholarly literature.
Table of Contents
Urbanization in China: Critical Concepts in Urban Studies
Edited by Marco Cenzatti and Margaret Crawford
Introduction – Margaret Crawford
Part 1: Previous urban models: Ming and Qing urban development 1611-1910
1. G. William Skinner, ‘Cities and the Hierarchy of Local Systems’, in G. W. Skinner (ed.), The City in Late Imperial China (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1977), pp. 275-351.
2. David Faure, ‘What Weber Did Not Know: Towns and Economic Development in Ming and Qing China’, in David Faure and Tao Tao Liu (eds), Town and Country in China: Identity and Perception (New York: Palgrave, 2002), pp. 58-84.
3. Kwan Man Bun, ‘Mapping the Hinterland: Treaty Ports and Regional Analysis in Modern China’, in Gail Hershatter, Emily Honig, Jonathan N. Lipman and Randall Stross (eds), Remapping China: Fissures in Historical Terrain (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996), pp.181-193.
4. F. W. Mote, ‘A Millenium of Chinese Urban History: Form, Time, and Space Concepts in Soochow’, The Rice University Studies 59, 4, 1973, 35-65.
5. Rhoads Murphey, ‘The Treaty Ports and China’s Modernization’, in Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner (eds), The Chinese City between Two Worlds (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp.17-72.
6. Jerome E. Taylor, ‘The Bund: Littoral Space of Empire in the Treaty Ports of East Asia’, Social History, 27, 2, 2002, 125-142.
Part 2: Urban Modernization in the Republican Era 1912-49
7. Susan Mann, ‘Urbanization and Historical Change in China’, Modern China, 10, 1, 1984, 79–113.
8. David Strand, ‘"A High Place is No Better than a Low Place": The City in the Making of Modern China’, in W. H. Yeh (ed.), Becoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), pp. 98-136.
9. Joseph W. Esherick, ‘Modernity and Nation in the Chinese City’, in J. W. Esherick (ed.), Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900-1950 (Honolulu: Hawai’i Press, 1999), pp. 1-18.
10. Madeline Yue Dong, ‘Defining Beijing: Urban Reconstruction and National Identity, 1929-1936’, in J. W. Esherick (ed.), Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900-1950, (Honolulu: Hawai’i Press, 1999), pp. 121-138.
11. Charles D. Musgrove, ‘Building a Dream: Constructing a National Capital in Nanjing, 1927-1937’, in J. W. Esherick (ed.), Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900-1950, (Honolulu: Hawai’i Press, 1999), pp. 139-160.
12. Christian Henriot, ‘Town Planning’, in Shanghai 1927-37: Municipal Power, Locality, and Modernization (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), pp. 168-184.
13. Wen-hsin Yeh, ‘Shanghai Modernity: Commerce and Culture in a Republican City’, China Quarterly, 150, 1997, 375-94.
Part 3: Socialism in Space: The Maoist City 1949-1978
14. David Bray, ‘Danwei Space’, in Social Space and Governance in Urban China: The Danwei System from Origins to Reform (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005), pp.123-156.
15. Ka-iu Fung, ‘The Spatial Development of Shanghai’, in Christopher Howe (ed.), Shanghai: Revolution and Development in an Asian Metropolis (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 269-300.
16. Victor F. S. Sit, ‘Beijing Under Socialism: Planning History and Its Role’, in Beijing: The Nature and Planning of a Chinese Capital City (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995), pp 82-113.
17. R. J. R. Kirkby, ‘Measures to Restrain Urban Growth’, in Urbanization in China, Town and Country in a Developing Economy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), pp. 21-53.
18. R. J. R. Kirkby, ‘Urban Conditions in the Aftermath of the Mao Era: The Case of Housing’, Urbanization in China, Town and Country in a Developing Economy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), pp. 164-179.
19. Tiejun Cheng and Mark Selden, ‘The Origins and Social Consequences of China's Hukou System’, The China Quarterly 139, 1994, 644-668.
20. David D. Buck, ‘Policies Favoring the Growth of Smaller Urban Places in the People Republic of China, 1949-1979’, in Laurence J. C. Ma and Edward W. Hanten (eds), Urban Development in Modern China (Boulder CO: Westview, 1981), pp.114-146.
21. Kam Wing Chan, ‘Economic Growth Strategy and Urbanization Policies in China, 1949-1982’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16, 2, 1992, 275-305.
22. Li Zhangi and Simon X. B. Zhao, ‘Reinterpretation of China’s Under-urbanization: A Systemic Perspective’, Habitat International, 27, 2003, 459–483.
23. Clifton W. Pannell, ‘Past and Present City Structure in China’, Town Planning Review, 48, 2, 1977, 157-172.
Part 4: Post-Reform: City and Countryside in Transition (1980-90)
24. L. Zhang and Simon X. B. Zhao, ‘Re-examining China’s "Urban" Concept and the Level of Urbanization’, The China Quarterly, 154, 1998, 330-381.
25. Jae Ho Chung and Tao-chiu Lam, ‘China's "City System" in Flux: Explaining Post-Mao Administrative Changes’, The China Quarterly, 180, 2004, 945-964.
26. David Zweig, ‘From Village to City: Reforming Urban-Rural Relations in China’, International Regional Science Review, 11, 1, 1987, 43-58.
27. Xu Xue-qiang and Li Si-ming, ‘China’s Open Door Policy and Urbanization in the Pearl River Delta Region’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 14, 1, 1990, 49-69.
28. Kam Wing Chan and Li Zhang, ‘The Hukou System and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Processes and Changes’, The China Quarterly, 160, 1999, 818-855.
29. Dorothy J. Solinger, ‘Appendix: What is the Floating Population?’, in Contesting Citizenship in Urban China: Peasant Migrants, the State, and the Logic of the Market (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), pp. 15-23.
30. Dorothy J. Solinger, ‘State Policies I- Turning Peasants into Subjects’, in Contesting Citizenship in Urban China: Peasant Migrants, the State, and the Logic of the Market (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), pp. 27-55.
31. Laurence J. C. Ma and Ming Fan, ‘Urbanization from Below: The Growth of Towns in Jiangsu, China’, Urban Studies, 31, 10, 1994, 79-103.
32. C. Cindy Fan, ‘The Vertical and Horizontal Expansions of China’s City System’, Urban Geography, 20, 6, 1999, 493-515.
33. George C. S. Lin, ‘Evolving Spatial Form of Urban-Rural Interaction in the Pearl River Delta, China’, Professional Geographer, 53, 1, 2001, 56-70.
34. Piper Gaubatz, ‘Changing Beijing’, Geographical Review 85, 1, 1995, 79-96.
35. George C. S. Lin, ‘Reproducing Spaces of Chinese Urbanism: City-based and Land-centered Urban Transformation’, Urban Studies, 44, 9, 2003, 1827-1855.
Part 5: New Centralities 1990-2000
36. Janfa Shen, Zhiqiang Feng and Kwan-Yiu Wong, ‘Dual-Track Urbanization in a Transitional Economy: The Case of Pearl River Delta in South China’, Habitat International, 30, 3, 2006, 690-705.
37. George C. S. Lin, ‘Peri-urbanism in Globalizing China: A Study of New Urbanism in Dongguan’, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 47, 1, 2006, 28-53.
38. Clifton W. Pannell, ‘Peri-urbanism in Globalizing China: A Critique’, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 47, 1, 2006, 54-57.
39. C. Cindy Fan, ‘Comment on "Peri-urbanism in Globalizing China" and Pannell's Critique’, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 47, 1, 2006, 58-60.
40. You-tien Hsing, ‘Global Capital and Local Land in China’s Urban Real Estate Development’, in Fulong Wu (ed.), Globalization and the Chinese City (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), pp.167-189.
41. Ya Ping Wang, Yanglin Wang and Jiansheng Wu, ‘Urbanization and Informal Development in China: Urban Villages in Shenzhen’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33, 4, 2009, 957-973.
42. Helen F. Siu, ‘Grounding Displacement: Uncivil Urban Spaces in Postreform South China’, American Ethnologist, 34, 2, 2007, 329–350.
43. Daniel B. Abrahamson, ‘The Dialectics of Urban Planning in China’, in Fulong Wu (ed.), China’s Emerging Cities: The Making of New Urbanism (New York: Routledge, 2010), pp. 66-86.
Part 6: Urban Fragments (mid 2000s to the present)
44. Jiang Xu, Anthony Yeh and Fulong Wu, ‘Land Commodification: New Land Development and Politics in China since the Late 1990s’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33, 4, 2009, 890–913.
45. Fulong Wu, ‘Beyond Gradualism: Chinese Urban Revolution and Emerging Cities’, in Fulong Wu (ed.), China’s Emerging Cities: The Making of New Urbanism (New York: Routledge, 2010), pp. 3-25.
46. Kam Wing Chan, ‘The Chinese Hukou System at 50’, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50, 2, 2009, 197-221.
47. Alan Smart and George S. Lin, ‘Local Capitalisms, Local Citizenship and Translocality: Rescaling from Below in the Pearl River Delta Region, China’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31, 2, 2007, 280–302.
48. He Shenjing, ‘Evolving Enclave Urbanism in China and its Socio-spatial Implications: The Case of Guangzhou’, Social & Cultural Geography, 14, 3, 2013, 243–275.
49. Jie Shen and Fulong Wu, ‘Restless Urban Landscapes in China: A Case Study of Three Projects in Shanghai’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 34, 3, 2012, 255-277.
50. Xuefei Ren and Sun Meng, ‘Artistic Urbanization: Creative Industries and Creative Control in Beijing’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36, 3, 2012, 504-521.
51. Samuel Y. Liang, ‘The Developers Real Estate Culture’, in Remaking China’s Great Cities: Space and Culture in Urban Housing, Renewal, and Expansion (New York: Routledge, 2012), 91-112.
52. Xufei Ren, ‘Architecture, Media and Real Estate Speculation’, in Building Globalization: Transnational Architectural Production in Urban China (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), pp. 60-96.
53. Piper Gaubatz, ‘Globalization and the Development of New Central Business Districts in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou’, in Laurence Ma and Fulong Wu (eds), Restructuring the Chinese City: Changing Society, Economy and Space (London and New York: Routledge, 2005), pp. 98-121.
54. Benjamin Guinot, ‘Atmospheric Pollution and Urban Development in China’, translated by N. Jayaram, China Perspectives, 76, 2008, 63-70.
55. Elizabeth C. Economy, ‘The Great Leap Backward? The Costs of China's Environmental Crisis’, Foreign Affairs, 86, 5, 2007, 38-59.
56. Fulong Wu, Chris Webster, Shenjing He and Yuting Liu, ‘China’s New Urban Poverty: An Introduction’, in Urban Poverty in China (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2010), pp. 1-29.
57. Youqin Huang, ‘From Work-unit Compounds to Gated Communities: Housing Inequality and Residential Segregation in Transitional Beijing’, in Laurence Ma and Fulong Wu (eds), Restructuring the Chinese City: Changing Society, Economy and Space (London and New York: Routledge, 2005) pp. 192-221.
58. Samuel Y. Liang, ‘Planning and its Discontents: Contradictions and Continuities in Remaking China's Great Cities, 1950-2010’, Urban History, 40, 2013, 530-553.
59. Ding Lu, ‘Appendix: Major Events of China’s Urban Development (1949-2010)’, in D. Lu (ed), The Great Urbanization of China (Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2012), pp.331-343.
Margaret Crawford is Professor of Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley. Marco Cenzatti is Lecturer in Architecture and City and Regional Planning at the University of California, Berkeley.