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Vacuum Technique





ISBN 9781138381308
Published August 9, 2018 by CRC Press
360 Pages

 
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Book Description

Vacuum technology finds itself in many areas of industry and research. These include materials handling, packaging, gas sampling, filtration, degassing of oils and metals, thin-film coating, electron microscopy, particle acceleration, and impregnation of electrical components. It is vital to design systems that are appropriate to the application, and with so many potential solutions this can become overwhelming.

Vacuum Technique provides an overview of vacuum technology, its different design methodologies, and the underlying theory. The author begins with a summary of the properties of low-pressure gases, then moves on to describe mathematical modeling of gas transfer in the vacuum system, the operation of pumps and gauges, computer-aided synthesis and analysis of systems, and the design of different vacuum systems. In particular, the author discusses the structure and characteristics of low, middle, high, and superhigh vacuum systems, as well as the characteristics of joints, materials, movement inputs, and all aspects of production technology and construction standards.

Using specific examples rather than describing the various elements, Vacuum Technique supplies engineers, technicians, researchers, and students with needed expertise and a comprehensive guide to designing, selecting, and using an appropriate vacuum system for a specific purpose.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
The Concept of Vacuum
History of Vacuum Engineering
Applications of Vacuum instruments
PROPERTIES OF GASES AT LOW PRESSURES
Gas Pressure
Velocity Distribution of Gas Molecules
Mean Free Path Length
Interaction of Gas Molecules With Surfaces
Adsorption Time
Saturation Pressure
Surface Coverage With Gas Molecules
Gas Dissolution in Solids
Electrical Phenomena
Test Questions
THEORY
Degrees of Vacuum
Transport Phenomena
Thermal Equilibrium of Pressures
Calculation of Gas Flow by the Method of Continuum mechanics
Calculation of Gas Flow Using the Method of Integral Angular Coefficients
Modeling of Gas Flow
Gas Evolution
Basic Equation
Test Questions
MEASUREMENT OF VACUUM
Classification of Measurement Methods
Mechanical Methods
Thermal Methods
Electrical Methods of Total Pressure Measurement
Electrical Methods of Measuring Partial Pressure
Sorption Methods
Calibration of Transducers
Measurement of Gas Flows
Leak Detection Methods
Test Questions
MECHANICAL METHODS OF VACUUM PRODUCTION
General Characteristic of Vacuum Pumps
Volume Pumping
Design of Displacement Pumps
Molecular Pumping
Design of Molecular Pumps
Vapor Jet Pumping
Working Liquids
Design of Vapor Jet Pumps
Traps
Test Questions
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL METHODS OF VACUUM PRODUCTION
General
Ion Pumping
Chemisorption Pumping
Evaporation Pumps
Cryocondensation Pumping
Cryoadsorption Pumping
Cryogenic Pumps
Getter-Ion Pumping
Getter-Ion Pumps
Test Questions
ANALYSIS OF THE VACUUM SYSTEMS
Typical Vacuum Systems
Calculation of Gas Load
Equations of Steady-State Pumping
Connections of System Elements and Pumped Objects
Connection of Pumps
Time of Pumping
Cost of Pumping
Verifying Calculation of a Vacuum System
An Example of Verifying Calculation
Test Questions
DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS
Database of Vacuum System Elements
Structural Design of Vacuum Systems Using the Method of Selecting Variants
Structural Design Using Typical Pattern
Parametric Design of a Vacuum System Using the Utilization Coefficient of Vacuum Pump
Multiparametric Design of a Vacuum System
Schematic Connections and Assembly
Projecting Calculation of a Vacuum System
Example of Projecting Calculation of a Vacuum System in Steady-State Mode
Test Questions
CONSTRUCTION OF VACUUM SYSTEMS
Materials of Vacuum Engineering
Non-Detachable Connections
Detachable Vacuum Connections
Vacuum Pipelines
Devices for Transmitting Movement to Vacuum
Electrical Vacuum Contacts
Vacuum Valves
Test Questions
PROBLEMS
Properties of Gases at Low Temperatures
Theory of Vacuum Engineering
Calculation of Vacuum Systems
REFERENCE TABLES
APPENDIX
Derivation of the Maxwell-Boltzmann Function
Average Velocity
The Equation of Polymolecular Adsorption
The Equation of Gas Flow Through an Aperture in Viscous Flow Mode
REFERENCES
INDEX

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Author(s)

Biography

Professor L N Rozanov is Head of the Department of Information Machinery Technology of St Petersburg Technical University. His research interests include adsorption pumps, leak detection and computer-aided design of vacum systems.