1st Edition

Vacuum and Ultravacuum
Physics and Technology

ISBN 9781498782043
Published November 9, 2017 by CRC Press
1036 Pages

USD $185.00

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Book Description

Vacuum technology has enormous impact on human life in many aspects and fields, such as metallurgy, material development and production, food and electronic industry, microelectronics, device fabrication, physics, materials science, space science, engineering, chemistry, technology of low temperature, pharmaceutical industry, and biology. All decorative coatings used in jewelries and various daily products—including shiny decorative papers, the surface finish of watches, and light fixtures—are made using vacuum technological processes. Vacuum analytical techniques and vacuum technologies are pillars of the technological processes, material synthesis, deposition, and material analyses—all of which are used in the development of novel materials, increasing the value of industrial products, controlling the technological processes, and ensuring the high product quality. Based on physical models and calculated examples, the book provides a deeper look inside the vacuum physics and technology.

Table of Contents

Part 1: Physics of Low pressures

Chapter 1: Fundamental Quantities in Vacuum Physics

1.1 Gases and Other Forms of Matters

1.2 Avogadro Law

1.3 Standard Molar Volume

1.4 Gas Molar Quantity

1.5 Loschmidt Number

1.6 Vacuum

1.7 Barometric Equation

1.8 Vacuum Regions

1.9 Basic Quantities and Units in Vacuum Technique

1.10 Examples for Gas Force Effects and Mass Flow Rates

Chapter 2: Molecular Kinetic Theory and its Implications

2.1 Bernoulli Equation as Implication of Molecular Kinetic Theory of Gases

2.2 Ideal Gas Law

2.3 Boltzmann Equation

2.4 Compressibility of Ideal Gases: Boyle’s Law

2.5 Volumetric Expansion of Ideal Gases: Gay-Lussac Law

2.6 Pressure Expansion of Ideal Gases: Charles’ Law

2.7 Dalton Law of Partial Pressures

2.8 Amagat Law of Partial Volumes

2.9 Measurement of Gas Molar Masses

2.10 Examples Applied to Ideal Gas Laws

2.11 Partition of Molecular Energy

2.12 Partition of Molecular Energy by Quantum Mechanics

2.13 Velocities of Molecules and their Distribution

2.14 Average Thermal Velocity

2.15 The Most Probable Velocity

2.16 Root Mean Square Velocity

2.17 Velocity Distribution Functions Respecting the Direction of Molecular Motion

2.18 Molecular Flux and Molecular Flux Density

2.19 Mean Free Path of Particles

2.20 Mean Free Path of Molecules in a Binary Gas Mixtures

2.21 Mean Free path of Molecules in a Gas of the Same Kind

2.22 Mean Free Path of Electrons in a Single Molecular Gas

2.23 Mean Free Path of Ions in a Gas of the Same Kind

2.24 Mean Free Path of Arbitrary Ions in a Single Gas Environment

2.25 Mean Free Path of Electrons in an Electron Environment

2.26 Sutherland Corrections for Mean Free Paths

2.27 Distribution of Molecules According to their Free Paths

2.28 Practical Implication of Mean Free Paths and their Distribution

2.29 Criterion of Mean Free Path

2.30 Examples for Molecular Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter 3: Thermodynamics of Gases at Low Pressures

3.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Enthalpy Applied to Ideal gases

3.2 Definition of Gas Heat Capacities

3.3 Isochoric Processes: Molar Heat of Ideal Gases at Constant Volume

3.4 Isobaric Processes of Ideal Gases and Mayer’s Formula

3.5 Isothermal Processes of Ideal Gases

3.6 Adiabatic Processes of Ideal Gases

3.7 Polytropic Processes of Ideal Gases

3.8 Measurement of Gas Heat Capacities

3.9 Measurement of Heat Capacity Ratio

3.10 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Ideal Gases

3.11 Entropy of Gas Systems

3.12 Thermodynamic Free Energy

3.13 Thermodynamic Equilibrium of Gaseous Phases with their Other Phases

3.14 Equilibrium of Gaseous Phases from Kinetic Theory of Gases

3.15 Saturated Vapor Pressure of some Materials used in Vacuum Technology

3.16 Vacuum Thermal Evaporation

3.17 Thermal Evaporation from Multiple Sources

3.18 Conditions at Vacuum Thermal Evaporation

3.19 Scaling of Evaporation Systems

3.20 Different Thermal Evaporation Techniques

3.21 Cross Contamination at Thermal Evaporation

3.22 Degassing of Evaporation Sources

3.23 Examples Applied to Thermodynamics of Gases and Thin Film Deposition

3.24 Sputtering, Deposition, and Sputtering Yield

Chapter 4: Real Gases

4.1 Attractive and Repulsive Forces in Real Gases

4.2 State Equations of Real Gases

4.3 Van der Waals State Equation of Real Gases

4.4 Others States Equations of Real Gases

4.5. Internal Energy of Real Gases

4.6 Heat of Vaporization

4.7 Heating or Cooling of Real Gases at Adiabatic Expansion

4.8 Liquefaction of Gases

4.9 Examples of Real Gases

Chapter 5: Transfer Phenomena in Gases at Vacuum Conditions

5.1 Transfer Processes at Low Vacuum, Viscous Conditions

5.2 Internal Friction of Gases - Viscosity at Low Vacuum, Viscous Conditions

5.3 Diffusion of Gases at Low Vacuum, Viscous Conditions

5.4 Thermal Conductivity at Viscous Low Vacuum Conditions

5.5 Transport Phenomena at High Vacuum, Free Molecular Conditions

5.6 Gas Friction with Walls at High Vacuum, Free Molecular Conditions

5.7 Diffusion at High Vacuum, Free Molecular Conditions

5.8 Thermal Conductivity at High Vacuum, Free Molecular Conditions

5.9 Evaluation of Transfer Coefficients

5.10 Examples for Transfer Coefficients

5.11 Diffusion of Electrically Charged Particles and Their Mobility

5.12 Ambipolar Diffusion

Chapter 6: Molecular Collisions

6.1 Elastic Direct Collisions of Two Molecules

6.2 Energy Loss of Backscattered Particles upon their Collisions with Solids

6.3 Molecular Collisions with Walls

6.4 Heat Transfer and Thermal Accommodation Coefficients

6.5 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients at Free Molecular Conditions

6.6 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Plate Configurations at Free Molecular Conditions

6.7 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Coaxial Wire-Cylinder Configurations at Free Molecular Conditions

6.8 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Parallel Plates at Free Molecular Conditions

6.9 Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Coaxial Cylinders at Free Molecular Conditions

6.10 The Distance of Temperature Discontinuity: Temperature Jump

6.11 Heat Transfer between Parallel Plates at Transition Conditions

6.12 Heat Transfer between Coaxial Cylinders at Transition Conditions

6.13 Slip Coefficients, Diffusive Reflection and Tangential Momentum Accommodation

6.14 Slip Coefficient and Viscous Drag Force on a Plate in the Gas Slip Regime

6.15 Coefficient of Tangential Momentum Accommodation at Free Molecular Flow

Chapter 7: Gas Flow at Vacuum Conditions

7.1 Gas Flow through Long Ducts in a Laminar Regime: Poiseuille Equation

7.2 Laminar Conductance of Ducts with Non-Circular Cross Sections

7.3 Intermediate Gas Flow Regime and Gas Slip Flow

7.4 Gas Flow in the Molecular Regime

7.5 Gas Flow via Long Cylindrical Tubes in the Molecular Regime

7.6 Molecular Conductance of Long Ducts with Rectangular Slit Cross-Sections

7.7 Knudsen Formula for Molecular Gas Flow

7.8 Molecular Conductance of Long Ducts with Different Shapes by Knudsen Formula

7.9 Molecular Conductance for Long Ducts by Universal Smoluchowski Formula

7.10 Molecular Flow of Gases via Apertures and Orifices

7.11 Thermal Transpiration

7.12 Effusion Rate of Two Different Gases

7.13 Effect of Diaphragm Aperture at Molecular Flow

7.14 Molecular Flow via Short Vacuum Ducts

7.15 Short Tubes with Circular Cross Sections by Clausing’s Transmission Theory

7.16 Transmission Probabilities for Molecular Conductance of Short Ducts

7.17 Examples for Calculation of Short Ducts

7.18 Transmission Probability by the Mote Carlo Method

7.19 Beaming Phenomena at Gas Flow

7.20 Molecular Conductance and Resistance in Serial Duct Connections

7.21 Molecular Conductance/Resistance in Complex Vacuum Circuits

7.22 Effective Pumping Speed in the Molecular Flow Regime

7.23 Gas Flow via Capillaries

7.24 Flow Time through Capillaries

7.25 Molecular Beams in Vacuum

7.26 Compressible Gas Flow and Gas Jet

Chapter 8: Sorption

8.1 Adsorption

8.2. Henry Adsorption Isotherms

8.3 Monomolecular Layer

8.4 Freundlich Adsorption Isotherms

8.5 Langmuir Adsorption Theory

8.6 Polymolecular Adsorption by BET Adsorption Theory

8.7 Rate of Adsorption and Desorption

8.8 Adsorption Surfaces

8.9 Methods for the Determination of True Surface Area

8.10 Surface Migration of Adsorbed Molecules

8.11 Absorption

8.12 Absorption and Gas Flow via Solids

8.13 Absorption and Permeation of Gases through Solids

8.14 Outgassing and Degassing of Materials

Chapter 9: Pumping Vacuum Systems

9.1 Pumping Vacuum Systems in the Viscous Regime of a Gas Flow

9.2 Pumping Vacuum Systems in the Free Molecular Regime of a Gas Flow

Part 2: Vacuum Production

Chapter 10: Categorization of Vacuum Pumps

Chapter 11: Mechanical Displacement Pumps

11.1 Piston Pumps

11.2 Rotary Oil Vane Pumps

11.3 Rotary Oil Piston Pumps

11.4 Rotary Oil Pumps with Large Pumping Capacities

11.5 Determination of Ideal Pumping Speeds of Rotary Oil Vane Pumps

11.6 Experimental Pumping Speeds of Rotary Oil Pumps

11.7 Pumping Speed Measured by the Method of Constant Pressure

11.8 Pumping Speed Determined by the Method of Constant Volume

11.9 Sealing, Lubrication and Safety Precaution at the Operation of Rotary Oil Pumps

11.10 Contamination of Vacuum Systems and its Suppression

11.11 Suppression of Vacuum Contamination by Traps

11.12 Liquid and Water Ring Pumps

Chapter 12: Dry Displacement Pumps

12.1 Dry Piston Pumps

12.2 Dry Rotary Vane Pumps

12.3 Dry Diaphragm Pumps

12.4 Roots Pumps

12.5 Tri-lobed Pumps

12.6 Rotary Claw and Hook Pumps

12.7 Screw Pumps

12.8 Scroll Vacuum Pumps

Chapter 13: Mechanical Kinetic Pumps

13.1 Molecular Drag Pumps

13.2 Molecular Drag Pumps at Low Vacuum (Laminar Flow)

13.3 Molecular Drag Pump Operating at Molecular Flow

13.4 Turbomolecular Pumps

13.5 Side Channel or Regenerative Vacuum Pumps

Chapter 14: Kinetic Propellant Pumps and Accessories

14.1 Vacuum Water Jet Pumps

14.2 Vapor Jet Ejector Pumps

14.3 Diffusion Pumps

14.4 Determination of Pumping Speed of Diffusion Pumps

14.5 Towards Contamination Free Vacuum

Chapter 15: Capture Pumps

15.1 Cryosorption Pumps

15.2 Cryogenic Pumps

15.3 Getters as Vacuum Chemical Pumps

15.4 Evaporable and Flash Getters as Chemical Pumps

15.5 Sublimation Getter Pumps

15.6 Non-evaporable Getters as Vacuum Chemical Pumps

15.7 Electrostatic Ion Pumps

15.8 Electrostatic Getter Triode Ion Pumps and Orbitron Pumps

15.9 Hybrid Magnetic Ion Sputter Pumps

Part 3: Low Pressure Measurements

Chapter 16: Introduction into the Low Pressure Measurements

16.1 Total Pressure Measurements

Chapter 17: Force Gauges with Manometric Liquids

17.1 U-Tube Manometers

17.2 Buoyant manometers

17.3 McLeod Compression Gauges

Chapter 18: Force Gauges with Elastic Deformation Elements

18.1 Bourdon Vacuum Gauges

18.2 Diaphragm and Capsule Gauges

18.3 Capacitance Diaphragm Gauges

18.4 Miniature Diaphragm Gauges

18.5 Piezoresistive Vacuum Gauges

Chapter 19: Force Gauges with Solid Sensing Elements

19.1 Piston Vacuum Gauges

19.2 Vane Vacuum Gauges

19.3 Molecular Knudsen Gauges

Chapter 20: Viscosity Molecular Gauges

20.1 Dynamic Viscosity Gauges

20.2 Oscillation and Decremental Viscosity Disc Gauge

20.3 Viscosity vacuum Gauges with Oscillating Fibers and Ribbons

20.4 Viscosity Gauges with Electrical Excitation: Becker’s Gauges

20.5 Oscillating Fork Quartz Crystal Viscosity Gauges

20.6 Spinning Rotor Gauges

Chapter 21: Vacuum Thermal Gauges

21.1 Resistor Thermal Conductivity Gauges – Pirani Gauges

21.2 Thermistor Vacuum Gauges

21.3 Thermocouple Vacuum Gauges

21.4 Dilatation Thermal Gauges

21.5 Unconventional Thermal Vacuum Gauges

Chapter 22: Ionization Gauges with Hot Filaments

22.1 Bayard-Alpert Gauges

22.2 Modulated Bayard-Alpert Gauges

22.3 Nottingham Ionization Gauges

22.4 Orbitron Gauges

22.5 Extractor Gauges with Hot Filaments

22.6 Extractor Ionization Gauges with Electrostatic Radial Cylindrical Deflectors

22.7 Extractor Ionization Gauges with Electrostatic Hemispherical Deflectors

22.8 Ionization Gauges with Bessel Analyzers

22.9 Klopfer Ion Gauge

22.10 Lafferty Hot Filament Gauges with Magnetic Field

22.11 High Pressure Ionization Gauges with Hot Filaments

Chapter 23: Electric Discharge Vacuum Gauges

23.1 Electric Discharge Tube Gauges

23.2 Vacuum Testers

23.3 Discharge Pressure Gauges with Optical Sensing

23.4 Cold Cathode Ionization Gauges with Magnetic Field

Chapter 24: Vacuum Gauges with Radioactive Emitters

Chapter 25: Partial Pressure Measurement at Vacuum Conditions

25.1 Direct Methods of Partial Pressure Measurements

25.2 Indirect Methods of Partial Pressure Measurements

25.3 Mass Spectrometers

25.4 Mass Spectrometer with Magnetic Sector Field

25.5 Double Focusing Mass Spectrometers

25.6 Thompson Parabola Mass Spectrometers

25.7 Trochotrons: Cycloidal Mass Spectrometers

25.8 Wien Filters

25.9 Mass Spectrometers with Crossed Magnetic and Radial Electric Fields

25.10 Dynamic Mass Spectrometers with Combined Electric Fields

25.11 Time of Flight Mass Spectrometers

25.12 Radio Frequency Resonance Mass Spectrometers

25.13 Farvitrons, Pendelions

25.14 Omegatrons

25.15 Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometers

25.16 Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

25.17 Monopole Mass Spectrometers

Chapter 26: Energy Analyzers of Electrically Charged Particles

26.1 Parallel-Plate Electrostatic Energy Analyzers

26.2 Radial Cylindrical Electrostatic Analyzers

26.3 Cylindrical Mirror Analyzers

26.4 Concentric Hemispherical Analyzers

26.5 Retarding Energy Analyzers

Chapter 27: Gas Flow Measurements and Controls

27.1 Flowmeters Based on Volumetric Measurements

27.2 Measurements of Gas Flows by Accumulation Methods

27.3 Measurements of Gas Flow by Calibrated Apertures

27.4 Venturi Flowmeters and Pitot Velocity Tubes

27.5 Rotameters

27.6 Thermal Mass Flowmeters and Controllers

Chapter 28: Leak Detection

28.1 Accumulation Methods of Leak Detections

28.2 High Pressure Methods of Leak Detections

28.3 Leak Detections with Testing Fluids

28.4 Leak Detections using Electric Discharges

28.5 Vacuometric Methods of Leak Detections

28.6 Leak Detections using Gas Permeations

28.7 Luminescence Leak Detections

28.8 Radioactive Methods of Leak Detections

28.9 Halogen Leak Detectors

28.10 Mass Spectrometric Methods of Leak Detections

29 Appendix of Solved Mathematical Problems

30 Subject Index

31 Author Index

32 List of Tables

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I. Bello is a Chair Professor at the dynamically developing Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), one of the top Chinese nanomaterial centers, and College of Nano Science and Technology (CNST), the Soochow University, China. Before his current position, he was Professor in Physics and Materials Science at the City University of Hong Kong. He is a founding core member of the Center of Super Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and the Advanced Coatings Applied Research Laboratory (ACARL) in Hong Kong. He was associated with the Surface Science Western, the University of Western Ontario in London (Canada) where he was an Adjunct Professor at the Department of Materials Engineering, an Adjunct Professor at Physics and Astronomy, and also an Industrial Consultant. Earlier in his career, he was Associate Professor at the Microelectronics Department, the Slovak University of Technology.

He earned his MSEE and PhD in microelectronics with a focus on vacuum technologies in microelectronics, particularly ion implantation and plasma processes, at the Slovak University of Technology (SUT) in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia/ Slovakia. He obtained the competitive Leverhulme Trust Fellowship in the field of the interaction of energetic ion beams with solids at the Electronic and Electrical Engineering, the University of Salford, England. As an Associate Professor at the SUT, he was a Vice Chairman of the Czechoslovak Expert Assembly for Vacuum Technology and Applications (Prague).

His earlier research was in ion implantation, thin film technology, and related vacuum processes, as well as diagnostic techniques applied to semiconductors. He obtained experience in building vacuum technological and analytical systems, including monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, mass separated ion implanters, UHV mass separated low energy ion beam facilities for hypothermal ion beams, and different vacuum deposition systems. Over the years, he has maintained a research group in materials science focusing on wide bandgap semiconductors, diamond, diamond-like carbons, cubic boron nitride, nanomaterials, photovoltaic cells, sensors, and organic electroluminescence devises. He has been teaching undergraduate and graduate courses at different universities. He lectured 19 diverse courses in physics and materials science, mostly advanced materials analyses, thin film deposition, vacuum technology, nondestructive testing, plasma processes, and physics for materials scientists. He published and presented approximately 380 articles that include 260 SCI journal articles with non-self-citation of approximately 32 per an article, a dozen patents (10 US), and couple of university textbooks.


This comprehensive book on vacuum physics will provide the beginner, as well as the seasoned professional, with a handy reference for a wide variety of situations and background information critical to vacuum processes. It is very well illustrated and accessible at many levels of reader experience in vacuum technology.

-IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, January/February — Vol. 36, No. 1