Value Stream Mapping for the Process Industries : Creating a Roadmap for Lean Transformation book cover
1st Edition

Value Stream Mapping for the Process Industries
Creating a Roadmap for Lean Transformation

ISBN 9781482247688
Published April 24, 2015 by Productivity Press
248 Pages 100 B/W Illustrations

FREE Standard Shipping
USD $79.95

Prices & shipping based on shipping country


Book Description

Providing a framework that highlights waste and its negative effects on process performance, value stream maps (VSMs) are essential components for successful Lean initiatives. While the conventional VSM format has the basic structure to effectively describe process operations, it must be adapted and expanded to serve its purpose in the process industry.

This book describes in detail how to create a complete VSM for a process industry manufacturing operation. Detailing the unique features of process operations and why they require additions and adjustments to traditional VSMs, the book walks readers through the steps in analyzing the map. It explains how to scope improvement projects, prioritize them, and then use future state VSMs to illustrate and motivate systemic improvement. In doing so, it supplies readers with a roadmap for a complete Lean transformation.

  • Describes how to analyze the map for waste and flow issues so that they can be reduced and even eliminated
  • Provides examples of the calculations needed for the flow parameters in data boxes
  • Explains how the VSM concept can be applied to the entire supply chain
  • Includes strategies for engaging your entire workforce in map creation

The book introduces a target manufacturing process and uses it to describe how to create a complete VSM. The target process is complex enough to illustrate the issues often encountered in mapping a process industry operation, but straightforward enough to explain all of the mapping considerations and decisions.

The book includes real examples of how VSMs brought much greater clarity to the real issues the processes faced and cases where the insight enabled management to avoid costly, inappropriate investments.

Table of Contents

The Value of Mapping
A Focus on Flow Rather Than on Function

Value Stream Mapping Fundamentals
Introduction to Value Stream Mapping
Material Flow
     Major Process Steps
     Data Boxes
     Process Box and Process Data Box
     Inventory Data Box
     Transportation Data Box
     Customers Data Box
     Supplier Data Box
Material and Information Flow Icons
Information Flow
The Third VSM Component—The Timeline
Parallel Equipment
Level of Detail

VSM Enhancements for Process Operations
Distinguishing Features of Process Operations That Require a Different VSM Approach
Capital Intensive vs. Labor Intensive
Material Flow Patterns—SKU Fan Out
Product Changeover Issues Are Complex
Product Families—Selecting a Target Product or Family
Takt Rate vs. Takt Time
Units of Production
Generating the Map
Time Units
Where to Begin

Additional Good Mapping Practices
Good VSM Practices
Map Layout—Flow Direction
Level of Detail
Level of Precision
Parallel Equipment
Logical Flow vs. Geographic Arrangement
Support Processes
Computer Tools vs. Brown Paper
Qualified Guidance and Coaching

Our Focusing Problem—A Synthetic Fiber Process
Process Overview
Raw Materials
Step 1: Polymerization
Step 2: Fiber Spinning
Step 3: Draw–Anneal
Step 4: Cut—Bale
Finished Product Storage and Shipping
Order Processing and Production Scheduling
The Synthetic Fiber Manufacturing VSM

Developing the Material Flow

Calculating Data Box Parameters
Process Step Data Boxes
     Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
          Calculating Availability
          Calculating Performance
          Calculating Quality
          Calculating OEE
     Remaining Factors
     Another Example of OEE
Supplier Data Boxes
Customer Data Boxes
Inventory Data Boxes
Transportation Data Boxes

Material Flow Rates and Takt
Calculating Takt
Rope Takt in Gaylords
Annealed Product Takt
Filament Takt
Flake, Spinning, and Polymer Takt
Raw Material Takt

Completing the Data Boxes: Utilization, Delivery Frequency, and Days of Supply
Transportation Frequency
Inventory Days of Supply

Mapping the Information Flow
Why Map Information Flow?
Fiber Manufacturing Information Flow
Capacity Constraint Resources
Additional Information Mapping Tools

Developing the Timeline
Timeline Principles
Fiber VSM Timeline
Cash Flow Cycle Time

Finding the Waste—Analyzing the Map
General Impressions from the Current State
Inventory Opportunities
Baler Reliability
Spinning Yield
Long Campaign Cycles (EPEIs)
Hot Roll Draw–Anneal
Uncoordinated Scheduling
Capturing Potential Opportunities

Scoping the Opportunities
Inventory Opportunities
     1. Raw Material Inventory in Rail Cars Is Too High
     2. Flake Inventory Is High
     3. Filament Inventory Is High
     4. Rope Finished Product Inventory in Gaylords Is Too High
     5. Right Size the Cutter Box Inventory
     6. Bale Finished Product Inventory Is Too High
Equipment Opportunities
     7. Spinning Changeover Losses Are High; Spinning Utilization Is High
     8. Baler Reliability Is Poor
     9. Changeover Improvement—Balers
     10. Reduce the Baler Campaign Cycle (EPEI)
     11. Mothball One Baler
     12. Hot Roll Draw–Anneal Reliability and Yield Wastes
     13. Mothball One Polymer Reactor
System-Wide Opportunities
     14. Implement Virtual Cellular Flow
     15. Filament Tub FIFOs after Implementation of Virtual Cells
     16. Implement Pull Replenishment across the Value Stream
     17. Drop the 60 Very Low Demand SKUs

Implementation Strategy and Sequence
Strategy for Implementation of Improvements
Riverside Fiber Plant Future States
Future State Generation 1
Future State Generation 2
Future State Generation 3

Future State Value Stream Maps
Why a Future State VSM?
Future State 1 Map
Future State 2 Map
Future State 3 Map

Supply Chain Mapping
Why a Supply Chain Map Is Important
Supply Chain Wastes
Effects of Wastes at the Supply Chain Level
Supply Chain Map Components
Future State Supply Chain Map
Supply Chain Map Example

VSM as a Way of Engaging Employees
Origin of the Problem
A New Paradigm on the Role of Labor
The Nature of Engagement

A Roadmap for Continuous Improvement

Benefits of Developing a VSM
Operations That Have Benefitted from Using a VSM
Processing of Large Rolls in a Sheet Goods Plant
Bottling Salad Dressing
Cooling Towers in Polyethylene Production
Producing Waxes for Coating Cardboard Boxes
Improving a Capital Project Execution System

Appendix A: Process Industry Characteristics
Characteristics That Distinguish the Process Industries
     Equipment Is Large and Difficult to Relocate
     Processes Are Difficult to Stop and Restart
     Capital Intensive vs. Labor Intensive
     Hidden WIP
     Product Differentiation Points

Appendix B: SMED Principles
SMED Origins
SMED Concepts
Product Changeovers in the Process Industries

Appendix C: Cellular Flow
Typical Process Plant Equipment Configurations
Cellular Manufacturing Applied to Process Lines

Appendix D: Pull Replenishment Systems
Why Is Pull Important?
What Is Pull?
Pull in Assembly
Difficulties in Process Plants
Push–Pull Interface
Visual Signals
When to Start Pulling: The Sequence of Implementation
Value Stream Focus
Showing Pull on a Value Stream Map

Appendix E: Cycle Stock and Safety Stock
Cycle Stock and Safety Stock
Calculating Cycle Stock
     Fixed Interval Replenishment Model
     Fixed Quantity Replenishment Model
Safety Stock
     Variability in Demand
     Variability in Lead Time
     Combined Variability
Example—Cut–Bale 2 Safety Stock

Appendix F: Product Wheels
Introduction to Product Wheels
Product Wheels Defined
Benefits of Product Wheels
Product Wheel Applicability
Process Improvement Time

Appendix G: Additional Reading

View More



Jennifer S. King is an operations research analyst with MCR LLC, analyzing operational impacts of emerging FAA technologies and developing cost and performance models to support airline investment decisions. Prior to that, she spent five years with the Department of Defense developing discrete event simulation models to assist the army in setting reliability requirements for new platforms, and analyzing performance of weapon systems alternatives. Her prior publishing experience includes editing textbooks and developing mathematics problems and solutions for ExploreLearning. She is the co-author of The Product Wheel Handbook—Creating Balanced Flow in High Mix Process Operations (Productivity Press, 2013).

Jennifer has degrees in Mathematics and Psychology from the University of Virginia, and a master’s degree in Operations Research from the University of Delaware. She is a member of INFORMS.

Peter L. King is the president of Lean Dynamics, LLC, a manufacturing improvement consulting firm located in Newark, Delaware. Prior to founding Lean Dynamics, Pete spent 42 years with the DuPont Company, in a variety of control systems, manufacturing systems engineering, Continuous Flow Manufacturing, and Lean Manufacturing assignments. That included 18 years applying Lean Manufacturing techniques to a wide variety of products, including sheet goods like DuPont™ Tyvek®, Sontara®, and Mylar®; fibers such as nylon, Dacron®, Lycra®, and Kevlar®; automotive paints; performance lubricants; bulk chemicals; adhesives; electronic circuit board substrates; and biological materials used in human surgery. On behalf of DuPont, Pete has consulted with key customers in the processed food and carpet industries. Pete retired from DuPont in 2007, leaving a position as Principal Consultant in the Lean Center of Competency. Recent clients have included producers of sheet goods, lubricants and fuel additives, vitamins and nutritional supplements, and polyethylene and polypropylene pellets.

Pete received a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Tech, graduating with honors. He is Six Sigma Green Belt certified (DuPont, 2001), Lean Manufacturing certified (University of Michigan, 2002), and is a Certified Supply Chain Professional (APICS, 2010). He is a member of the Association for Manufacturing Excellence, APICS, and the Institute of Industrial Engineers.

He served as president of IIE’s Process Industry Division in 2009–2010. Pete is the author of Lean for the Process Industries—Dealing with Complexity (Productivity Press, 2009), and several published articles on the application of Lean concepts to process operations. He is the co-author of The Product Wheel Handbook—Creating Balanced Flow in High Mix Process Operations (Productivity Press, 2013). He has been an invited speaker at several professional conferences and meetings. He has presented seminars and taught courses across the globe on the application of Lean concepts to process operations.


Value Stream Mapping has become a key tool for implementing Lean thinking and positive change across our business. This book describes, in detail, the process by which Pete King has helped many organizations like ours to delight customers and relentlessly drive out waste. A must-read for any executive wanting to facilitate a transformation journey within the process industries.
—Steve Anderson, Global Vice President of Supply, Afton Chemical

Pete King has developed an international reputation as a leading authority on the subject of Lean in the process industries. In this book, he superbly condenses his decades of practical experience into a clear and highly effective guide. From diagnosing the major wastes and inhibitors to flow, to designing and executing a roadmap, Pete offers everything required to deliver true operational excellence from Value Stream Mapping.
—Pete Wright, Managing Director & Principal Consultant, Pico Consulting Ltd.

A must-read for practitioners and consultants alike. So far, Lean initiatives in the process industry have been handicapped by the fact that all good books on Value Stream Mapping refer to discrete manufacturing. Food, pharma, and chemical processes are, by their nature, different and need an adapted approach. Peter King’s deep, hands-on experience provides the process industry with a state-of-the-art toolkit to eliminate waste and reach breakthrough performance.
—Hans van Oosteren, Managing Partner, Improvium

The book is very practical in its organization: for each theoretical step, King includes real-world examples. More than a book on VSM, it offers us a meaningful and complete discussion about process industry productivity. As he explains the different parts of the map, King skillfully guides us through various practical approaches used to eliminate waste and create flow. It is remarkable how he managed to include so much knowledge and experience into a book that is so pleasant to read.
—Henrique Fagundes, Operations Implementation Leader, McKinsey & Company

Peter has based this book on his extensive experience, to create a clear guide which will be invaluable for both leaders and Lean professionals. The user will be able to use the VSM to identify waste and remove bottlenecks, following the real examples from both the discrete product and process industries. This is the first book I have read on the subject that goes into the required level of depth and detail to clearly demonstrate the path to a complete Lean transformation.
—John Cockburn-Evans, Fellow, Institute of.Chem.E.; Certified Professional Coach; Senior Consultant & Lean Coach, DuPont Sustainable Solutions