Understanding the conditions under which variability in performance may arise, and the processes related to its emergence, gives us insight into the development of techniques for improving the quality of performance. Variability in Human Performance details the scientific and the practical implications of human performance variability by providing a broad perspective on how and why such variability occurs across a number of disciplinary domains. The text takes an approach that rests upon the idea of context, or design, specificity in performance, namely that variability in performance is closely referenced to design factors in the environment in which performance is occurring.
An exploration of the link between variability and related processes, the book introduces a comprehensive framework for understanding human performance variability, presented in terms of how human control of behavior is closely tied to design factors in the performance environment. The authors introduce empirical evidence, as well as practical examples and application areas, in support of this framework. The book begins with coverage of neurobiological and biomechanical basis of movement variability, then examines rich and extensive empirical evidence available for context specificity in cognitive performance and learning, as a basis for cognitive performance variability. The book then reviews the evidence for context specificity in:
- Student learning
- Displaced feedback conditions
- Human error behavior
- Affective performance
- Social and team performance
The authors also explore work performance as influenced by complex sociotechnical systems and as a basis for performance variability, applying control systems concepts to an interpretation of the nature and basis of performance variability in all of these domains. They conclude by taking an evolutionary perspective on the origins and behavioral significance of human performance variability. The book then provides strategies on how individuals, groups, and organizations can significantly reduce variability in human performance that often leads to systems failures.
Purpose and Scope
Key Principles of HF/E Science
Key Issues Bearing on the Properties and Purpose of Performance Variability
A Control Systems Perspective on Performance Variability
Control Systems Concepts
Behavioral Cybernetics of Adaptive Systems Behavior
Behavioral Cybernetics of Cognition
Variability in Human Motor and Sport Performance
The Role of Variability in Behavioral Control
Methods for Analyzing Performance Variability
Time Series Analysis
Fourier Transform Analysis.
Theoretical Perspectives on Variability and Sport Skill Learning
Dynamical Systems Theory
Variability in Learning and Performing Skills
Variability between Expert and Novice Performers
Variability in Rehabilitation Settings
Variability in Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance
Variability in Cognitive Performance
Early Transfer of Training Example
Differential Learning Research: Early Studies
Differential Learning Research: Analytical Innovations
Critical Analyses of Ackerman
Variability in Psychomotor Performance
Transfer of Training among Different Balance Tests
Fitts’ Law: Context Specificity in Movement Time Performance.
Hick-Hyman Law: Context Specificity in Choice Reaction Time Performance.
The Law of Practice: Context Specificity in Learning.
Qualitative Observations about Task Performance Variability
Context Specific Observations of Gladwell
Educational Ergonomics: Context Specificity in Student Learning
The Nature of Student Learning from the Perspective of Educational Psychology
The Nature of Student Learning from the Perspective of HF/E
Origins and Scope of Learning Ergonomics
The Influence of HF/E Design Factors on Student Performance and Learning.
Impact of Classroom and School Building Design Factors on Student Performance and Learning.
Impact of Educational System Design Factors on Student Performance and Learning
Impact of Learning Strategy Design Factors on Student Performance and Learning.
Impact of Student Character and Emotional Status on Student Performance and Learning.
Impact of Student Health on Student Performance and Learning
Impact of Community System Design Factors on Student Performance and Learning
Influence of Nondesign-Related Factors on Student Learning
Analysis Offers Nothing New
Some Design Factors Not Considered
Variability in Human Performance Under Displaced Sensory Feedback
Early History of Spatially Displaced Visual Feedback Research
Early History of Delayed Feedback Research
Behavioral Control Systems Analysis of Displaced Visual Feedback Effects
Examples of Spatially Displaced Visual Feedback
Example of Delayed Visual Feedback
Compilation of Performance Effects of Spatially Displaced and Delayed Sensory Feedback
Displaced Sensory Feedback Effects on Teleoperation
Human Factors Issues with Workstation Telepresence
Performance Variability during Teleoperation
Human Error and Performance Variability
Context Specificity in Human Error
Management Responsibility for Human Error
Human Error as an Inherent Attribute of Human Performance Variability
A Control Systems Perspective on Error Performance
There are Evident Limitations to the Term "Human Error" as a Meaningful Scientific and Operational Concept
Principles of Hazard Management
Definitions, Scope, and Historical Perspective
Rationale and Background
Behavioral Cybernetic Model of Hazard Management
Key Principles of Hazard Management
Variability in Affective Performance
Personality and Performance Variability
Emotion and Performance Variability
Social Cybernetics of Team Performance Variability
Cybernetic Fundamentals of Feedback and Feedforward Control
Longstanding Scientific Reservations about Cybernetic Psychology
Social Cybernetics and Teamwork
Modes of Social Tracking
Feedback Perturbation of Social Tracking
Social Cybernetic Studies of Social Interaction and Teamwork Through .
Design Factors and Variability in Social Tracking.
Sensory Feedback Modality and Social Tracking Skill
Learning of Social Tracking Skills
Physiological Feedback Effects in Social Tracking
Effects of Sensory Feedback Perturbations on Social Tracking
Social Tracking in Group Interaction
Social Cybernetic Basis of Cognitive Behavior and Communication
Social Cybernetic Research Since
Feedback Control Compliance During Parallel-Linked Social Tracking
Delayed Feedback in Serial-Linked and Mutual Social Tracking
Augmented Team Cognition.
Social Cybernetics in Participatory Ergonomics Programs.
Design Imperatives for Homeokinesis at the Team Level
Assessment of Homeokinesis at the Team Level.
Variability in Human Work Performance: Interaction with Complex Sociotechnical Systems
The Nature and Significance of Work
Introduction: Human Control of the Behavioral Environment through Work
Theories of Work
General Laws and Customs of Work
The Future of Work
Work Performance Variability and Interaction with Complex Sociotechnical Systems.
Work Performance Variability and the Design and Management of Organizational Systems
Macroergonomic Perspectives on Organizational Performance Variability
Synergism of Ergonomics with Safety, Quality, and Productivity of Organizational and Work Performance
Operational Synergism between Safety and Quality
A Control Systems Perspective on Organizational Design and Management: Role of Ergonomics.
Work Performance Variability and Performance Variability of Economies and Nation States
A Control Systems Perspective on Variability in Economic Performance
Work Performance Variability and Variability in Economic Performance
Work Performance Variability and Variability in Nation-State Performance
A Control Systems Perspective on Variability in Nation-State Performance
Variability in Fracture- Critical Systems.
Fracture-Critical System Failures
Why Fracture-Critical Failures Happen
Jeopardizing the Future.
The Futility of Massive Scale
The Perversity of Unintended Consequences.
Creating a More Resilient Future for Ourselves
Human Performance Variability: An Evolutionary Perspective.
Mechanisms of Evolution
Nature Versus Nurture
Heritability of Intelligence.
Implications for Context Specificity
Phylogenetic Origins of Human Performance Variability
Human Self-Selection through Work.
Landmarks in the Evolution of Human Work
Summary and Conclusions
Conclusions: The Purpose of Human Performance Variability
"Throughout, the book focuses on the sources of variability in human performance, including the design of work systems. The book will therefore be of interest to a wide range of HFE specialists."
—RS Bridger, Institute of Naval Medicine
"This is a truly excellent book that increases awareness of the study of variability in movement performance. … Importantly, this book provides exciting discussions on theoretical problems on movement variability such as what are the sources of this variability."
—DR. Nick Stergiou, University of Nebraska Omaha and University of Nebraska Medical Center