Vector Fields with Applications to Thermodynamics and Irreversibility is part of the series "Mathematics and Physics for Science and Technology", which combines rigorous mathematics with general physical principles to model practical engineering systems with a detailed derivation and interpretation of results. Volume V presents the mathematical theory of partial differential equations and methods of solution satisfying initial and boundary conditions, and includes applications to: acoustic, elastic, water, electromagnetic and other waves; the diffusion of heat, mass and electricity; and their interactions. This is the first book of the volume.
The second book of volume V continues this book on thermodynamics, focusing on the equation of state and energy transfer processes including adiabatic, isothermal, isobaric and isochoric. These are applied to thermodynamic cycles, like the Carnot, Atkinson, Stirling and Barber-Brayton cycles, that are used in thermal devices, including refrigerators, heat pumps, and piston, jet and rocket engines. In connection with jet propulsion, adiabatic flows and normal and oblique shock waves in free space and nozzles with variable cross-section are considered. The equations of fluid mechanics are derived for compressible two-phase flow in the presence of shear and bulk viscosity, thermal conduction and mass diffusion. The thermodynamic cycles are illustrated by detailed calculations modelling the operation of piston, turbojet and rocket engines in various ambient conditions, ranging from sea level, the atmosphere of the earth at altitude and vacuum of space, for the propulsion of land, sea, air and space vehicles.
The book is intended for graduate students and engineers working with mathematical models and can be applied to problems in mechanical, aerospace, electrical and other branches of engineering dealing with advanced technology, and also in the physical sciences and applied mathematics.
- Simultaneously covers rigorous mathematics, general physical principles and engineering applications with practical interest
- Provides interpretation of results with the help of illustrations
- Includes detailed proofs of all results
L.M.B.C. Campos was chair professor and the Coordinator of the Scientific Area of Applied and Aerospace Mechanics in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and also the director (and founder) of the Center for Aeronautical and Space Science and Technology until retirement in 2020.
L.A.R.Vilela is currently completing an Integrated Master's degree in Aerospace Engineering at Institute Superior Tecnico (1ST) of Lisbon University.
1. Classes of Equations and Similarity Solutions.
1.1. Hierarchy of Partial Differential Equations. 1.2 General Integral and Arbitrary Functions. 1.3. Unforced P.D.E. with First-Order Derivatives. 1.4. Quasi-Linear and Forced First-Order P.D.E.s. 1.5. Differentials of First-Degree in Three Variables. 1.6. P.D.E.s with Constant Coefficients and All Derivatives of Same Order. 1.7. Harmonic and Biharmonic Functions on the Plane. 1.8. Forced Linear P.D.E. with Derivatives of Constant Order. 1.9. Forced Harmonic and Biharmonic Equations. 1.10. Conclusion.
2. Thermodynamics and Irreversibility.
2.1. Work, Heat, Entropy and Temperature. 2.2. Functions of State and Constitutive Properties. 2.3. Three Principles and Four Processes of Thermodynamics. 2.4. Entropy Production and Diffusive Properties.