Vector Fields with applications to Thermodynamics and Irreversibility
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This book is part of the series "Mathematics and Physics Applied to Science and Technology" that combines rigorous mathematics with general physical principles to model practical engineering systems with a detailed derivation and interpretation of results. The volume V presents the mathematical theory of partial differential equations and methods of solution satisfying initial and boundary conditions and includes applications to acoustic, elastic, water, electromagnetic and other waves and to the diffusion of heat, mass and electricity, and to their interactions. The second book 11 of volume V continues the book 10 on thermodynamics focusing on the equation of state and energy transfer processes including adiabatic, isothermal, isobaric and isochoric. These are applied to thermodynamic cycles, like the Carnot, Atkinson, Stirling and Barber-Brayton cycles, that are used in thermal devices, including refrigerators, heat pumps, and piston, jet and rocket engines. In connection with jet propulsion are considered adiabatic flows and normal and oblique shock waves in free space and nozzles with variable cross-section. The equations of fluid mechanics are derived for compressible two-phase flow in the presence of shear and bulk viscosity, thermal conduction and mass diffusion. The thermodynamic cycles are illustrated by detailed calculations modelling the operation of piston, turbojet and rocket engines, in various ambient conditions, ranging from sea level, the atmosphere of the earth at altitude and vacuum of space, for the propulsion of land, sea, air and space vehicles. The book is intended for graduate students and engineers working with mathematical models and can be applied to problems in mechanical, aerospace, electrical and other branches of engineering dealing with advanced technology, and also in the physical sciences and applied mathematics.
Table of Contents
1. Classes of Equations and Similarity Solutions. 1.1. Hierarchy of Partial Differential Equations. 1.2 General Integral and Arbitrary Functions. 1.3. Unforced P.D.E. with First-Order Derivatives. 1.4. Quasi-Linear and Forced First-Order P.D.E.S. 1.5. Differentials of First-Degree in Three Variables. 1.6. P.D.E.s with Constant Coefficients and All Derivatives of Same Order. 1.7. Harmonic and Biharmonic Functions on the Plane. 1.8. Forced Linear P.D.E. with Derivatives of Constant Order. 1.9. Forced Harmonic and Biharmonic Equations. 1.10. Conclusion. 2. Thermodynamics, Irreversibility, Compressible Flow and Shocks. 2.1. Work, Heat, Entropy and Temperature. 2.2. Functions of State and Constitutive Properties. 2.3. Three Principles and Four Processes of Thermodynamics. 2.4. Entropy Production and Diffusive Properties.
Luis Manuel Braga da Costa Campos was Chair Professor and the Coordinator of the Scientific Area of Applied and Aerospace Mechanics in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and also the director (and founder) of the Center for Aeronautical and Space Science and Technology until retirement in 2020.
L.A. R. Vilela is currently completing an Integrated Master's degree in Aerospace Engineering at Institute Superior Tecnico (1ST) of Lisbon University.