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Vehicle Crash Mechanics




ISBN 9780849301049
Published June 19, 2002 by CRC Press
504 Pages 589 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Governed by strict regulations and the intricate balance of complex interactions among variables, the application of mechanics to vehicle crashworthiness is not a simple task. It demands a solid understanding of the fundamentals, careful analysis, and practical knowledge of the tools and techniques of that analysis.

Vehicle Crash Mechanics sets forth the basic principles of engineering mechanics and applies them to the issue of crashworthiness. The author studies the three primary elements of crashworthiness: vehicle, occupant, and restraint. He illustrates their dynamic interactions through analytical models, experimental methods, and test data from actual crash tests. Parallel development of the analysis of actual test results and the interpretation of mathematical models related to the test provides insight into the parameters and interactions that influence the results. Detailed case studies present real-world crash tests, accidents, and the effectiveness of air bag and crash sensing systems. Design analysis formulas and two- and three-dimensional charts help in visualizing the complex interactions of the design variables.

Vehicle crashworthiness is a complex, multifaceted area of study. Vehicle Crash Mechanics clarifies its complexities. The book builds a solid foundation and presents up-to-date techniques needed to meet the ultimate goal of crashworthiness analysis and experimentation: to satisfy and perhaps exceed the safety requirements mandated by law.

Table of Contents

CRASH PULSE AND KINEMATICS
Introduction
Vehicle Impact Modes and Crash Data Recording
Digital Filtering Practice per SAE J211 and ISO 6487
Basic Kinematic Relationships
Impact and Excitation: Vehicle and Sled Test Kinematics
Vehicle and Occupant Kinematics in Fixed Object Impact
Kinematic Variables
Case Study: Single Vehicle-Tree Impact Accident
Restraint Coupling
Occupant Ridedown Analysis and Energy Management
References
CRASH PULSE CHARACTERIZATION
Introduction
Moment-Area Method
Pulse Approximations with Non-Zero Initial Deceleration
Pulse Approximations with Zero Initial Deceleration
Fourier Analysis of Crash Pulse
References
CRASH PULSE PREDICTION--THE CONVOLUTION METHOD
Introduction
Transfer Function via Convolution Integral
Transfer Function and a Spring-Damper Model
Belted and Unbelted Occupant Performance with Air Bag
Body Mount and Torso Restraint Transfer Functions
Effect of Sled and Barrier Pulses on Occupant Response
Other Applications
Response Inverse Filtering
References
BASICS OF IMPACT AND EXCITATION MODELING
Introduction
Impact and Excitation--Rigid Barrier and Hyge Sled Tests
Ridedown Existence Criteria and Efficiency
Basics of Spring and Damper Dynamic Modeling
Two-Mass and Effective Mass Systems
Vehicle-to-Barrier Impact: Spring-Mass Model
Spring-Mass Occupant Model Subjected to Excitation
Vehicle-to-Vehicle Impact: Spring-Mass Model
A Maxwell Model
Impact on Kelvin Model--Vehicle or Component
Damping Factor and Natural Frequency from Tests
Excitation on the Kelvin Model--Occupant and Restraint
References
RESPONSE PREDICTION BY NUMERICAL METHODS
Introduction
Hybrid Model--A Standard Solid Model
Two Mass-Spring-Damper Model
Natural Frequencies in Two-Mass System
Numerical Searching Techniques
Loading and Unloading Simulation
A Lumped-Parameter Model--CRUSH II
Side-Impact and Frontal-Offset Models
References
IMPULSE, MOMENTUM, AND ENERGY
Introduction
Background
Center of Gravity and Motion Theorem
Impulse and Circle of Constant Acceleration
Principle of Work and Energy
Vehicle Inertia Properties and Critical Sliding Velocity
Rollover Crashes
Eccentric Loading on Vehicle Rollover
References
CRASH SEVERITY AND RECONSTRUCTION
Introduction
Occupant Motion Under Impact and Excitation
Preloading on an Occupant
Central Collisions
Non-Central Collisions
Use of DV and BEV of Vehicles in Crash Severity Assessment
Vehicle Acceleration and Crash Severity
Velocity and Energy Distributions in Two-Vehicle Impact
Computation of Barrier Equivalent Velocity
Intermediate Mass Effect
Modeling the Vehicle-to-Vehicle Compatibility Test
Accident Reconstruction Methodology
References

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