Vehicle Crash Mechanics: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Vehicle Crash Mechanics

1st Edition

By Matthew Huang

CRC Press

504 pages | 589 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2002-06-19
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Description

Governed by strict regulations and the intricate balance of complex interactions among variables, the application of mechanics to vehicle crashworthiness is not a simple task. It demands a solid understanding of the fundamentals, careful analysis, and practical knowledge of the tools and techniques of that analysis.

Vehicle Crash Mechanics sets forth the basic principles of engineering mechanics and applies them to the issue of crashworthiness. The author studies the three primary elements of crashworthiness: vehicle, occupant, and restraint. He illustrates their dynamic interactions through analytical models, experimental methods, and test data from actual crash tests. Parallel development of the analysis of actual test results and the interpretation of mathematical models related to the test provides insight into the parameters and interactions that influence the results. Detailed case studies present real-world crash tests, accidents, and the effectiveness of air bag and crash sensing systems. Design analysis formulas and two- and three-dimensional charts help in visualizing the complex interactions of the design variables.

Vehicle crashworthiness is a complex, multifaceted area of study. Vehicle Crash Mechanics clarifies its complexities. The book builds a solid foundation and presents up-to-date techniques needed to meet the ultimate goal of crashworthiness analysis and experimentation: to satisfy and perhaps exceed the safety requirements mandated by law.

Table of Contents

CRASH PULSE AND KINEMATICS

Introduction

Vehicle Impact Modes and Crash Data Recording

Digital Filtering Practice per SAE J211 and ISO 6487

Basic Kinematic Relationships

Impact and Excitation: Vehicle and Sled Test Kinematics

Vehicle and Occupant Kinematics in Fixed Object Impact

Kinematic Variables

Case Study: Single Vehicle-Tree Impact Accident

Restraint Coupling

Occupant Ridedown Analysis and Energy Management

References

CRASH PULSE CHARACTERIZATION

Introduction

Moment-Area Method

Pulse Approximations with Non-Zero Initial Deceleration

Pulse Approximations with Zero Initial Deceleration

Fourier Analysis of Crash Pulse

References

CRASH PULSE PREDICTION--THE CONVOLUTION METHOD

Introduction

Transfer Function via Convolution Integral

Transfer Function and a Spring-Damper Model

Belted and Unbelted Occupant Performance with Air Bag

Body Mount and Torso Restraint Transfer Functions

Effect of Sled and Barrier Pulses on Occupant Response

Other Applications

Response Inverse Filtering

References

BASICS OF IMPACT AND EXCITATION MODELING

Introduction

Impact and Excitation--Rigid Barrier and Hyge Sled Tests

Ridedown Existence Criteria and Efficiency

Basics of Spring and Damper Dynamic Modeling

Two-Mass and Effective Mass Systems

Vehicle-to-Barrier Impact: Spring-Mass Model

Spring-Mass Occupant Model Subjected to Excitation

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Impact: Spring-Mass Model

A Maxwell Model

Impact on Kelvin Model--Vehicle or Component

Damping Factor and Natural Frequency from Tests

Excitation on the Kelvin Model--Occupant and Restraint

References

RESPONSE PREDICTION BY NUMERICAL METHODS

Introduction

Hybrid Model--A Standard Solid Model

Two Mass-Spring-Damper Model

Natural Frequencies in Two-Mass System

Numerical Searching Techniques

Loading and Unloading Simulation

A Lumped-Parameter Model--CRUSH II

Side-Impact and Frontal-Offset Models

References

IMPULSE, MOMENTUM, AND ENERGY

Introduction

Background

Center of Gravity and Motion Theorem

Impulse and Circle of Constant Acceleration

Principle of Work and Energy

Vehicle Inertia Properties and Critical Sliding Velocity

Rollover Crashes

Eccentric Loading on Vehicle Rollover

References

CRASH SEVERITY AND RECONSTRUCTION

Introduction

Occupant Motion Under Impact and Excitation

Preloading on an Occupant

Central Collisions

Non-Central Collisions

Use of DV and BEV of Vehicles in Crash Severity Assessment

Vehicle Acceleration and Crash Severity

Velocity and Energy Distributions in Two-Vehicle Impact

Computation of Barrier Equivalent Velocity

Intermediate Mass Effect

Modeling the Vehicle-to-Vehicle Compatibility Test

Accident Reconstruction Methodology

References

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW041000
LAW / Forensic Science
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical