1st Edition

Vernacular Heritage and Earthen Architecture

Edited By Mariana R. Correia, Gilberto Carlos, Sandra Rocha Copyright 2014
    896 Pages
    by CRC Press

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    In a continuously changing world, there has been a growing interest in the protection of vernacular heritage and earthen architecture. The need to protect and enhance this fragile heritage via intelligent responses to threats from nature and the environment has become evident.

    Historically, vernacular heritage research focussed on philosophical aspects and surveys, while earthen architecture studies emphasized earthen material and construction techniques. However, for these particular forms of heritage to survive, academic research had to shift its focus, so as to respond to new challenges. Vernacular Heritage and Earthen Architecture gathers contributions of key international researchers from 50 countries, and covers a wide variety of topics:

    • Cultural heritage and building cultures

    • Materials and construction techniques

    • Territory and environmental adaptation

    • Energy effi ciency and sustainable design

    • Natural hazards and risk mitigation

    • Education and research focus

    Vernacular Heritage & Earthen Architecture: Contributions for Sustainable Development discusses the threats that vernacular and earthen heritage are facing, and refl ects on their important contribution to sustainable development. The book will prove to be a valuable source of information for academics, researchers and professionals in the fi elds of vernacular heritage, conservation, architecture, civil engineering and construction, and can be used as a reference text for undergraduate and post-graduate courses in vernacular heritage and earthen architecture.

    Opening remarks
    Organisation and committees
    Conference support
    Foreword Gisle Jakhelln
    Foreword John Hurd
    Foreword Hubert Guillaud
    Foreword Mariana Correia

    Keynote speakers

    ‘Built to meet Needs’: Paul Oliver and the study of vernacular architecture
    M. Vellinga

    Cultural values of earthen architecture for sustainable development
    H. Guillaud

    Theme 1 Cultural heritage and building cultures

    Vernacular earthen granaries in Mexico
    L. Guerrero

    Givaer Island, on the artic coast of Norway—a multifaceted economy surviving on heritage skills
    G. Jakhelln

    Historic daubed corner-timbered constructions in Czech Republic
    Z. Syrová & J. Syrový

    The Oga’i of the Mbya Guaraní people in Paraguay: Alternatives for indigenous habitat
    S.R. Cabrera & E.G. Nessi

    Vernacular houses of Lesvos, Greece: Typology and construction technology
    P. Jerome

    Building on piles
    M. Lewis

    Carrasqueira—fishing harbour on stilts, hut village in Portugal
    F. Jorge & P. Bruno

    Working and living: The fishermen and their settlements in Alagoas, Brazil
    M.A. da Silva & L.M. Cerqueira

    An example of vernacular architecture in Central Anatolia: The mut houses
    B. Çelebioğlu & U. Yergün

    The Sami Goahti, an earthen house in the Arctic
    R. Sjølie

    Researching the traditional building culture of Costa da Lagoa, Santa Catarina, Brazil
    I. Kanan

    Vernacular architecture in Cuba
    D.M. Taboada Espiniella

    African-Brazilian architecture in Benin: Rescue and revaluation of traditional techniques
    A. Mascarenhas & R.K. Gbénahou

    “Sino-Portuguese”: The significance of the Shophouse definition in Southern peninsula, Thailand
    N. Chansen

    Minka—Japanese immigrant houses in Ribeira Valley, São Paulo, Brazil
    A. Hijioka, B. Joaquim & A. Ino

    (Re) using adobe—from survey to conservation, from restoration to new construction
    V. Mestre

    Adobe architecture in Portugal: Differences and analogies between vernacular and ‘designed’ architecture
    M. Fernandes

    Vernacular rammed earth building typologies in the ancient reign of Seville, Spain
    J. Canivell, R. Rodríguez García, A.M. González Serrano & A. Romero Girón

    Geographical cataloguing of earthen architecture in Soria, Spain
    I.J. Gil Crespo

    Contribution to the knowledge of rammed earth houses in Vidigueira, Portugal
    N. Fialho

    Rural rammed earth houses in Baixo Alentejo, Portugal: Ruin or heritage?
    C.S. Pereira

    Constructions with terróns in Alta Limia, Galicia: A lost sustainable architecture
    A. Fernández Palicio

    Vernacular technology in Brazil: Transformation and preservation
    M.A.P. Rezende, J.L.R. Leite & F.M.P. Cardoso

    Traditional and contemporary constructive cultures: A comparison between building processes
    T. Ferreira

    Evaluation of planning systems in earthen heritage conservation
    M. Correia & N. Walliman

    Intangible values of building culture in vernacular architecture
    Ö. Karakul

    Cultural heritage management and ownership regime in Island of Mozambique
    A.T. Silva, R. Derks, A.P. Roders & J. Hougaard

    Diagnosis methodology for restoration of Brazilian 18th century buildings
    F.M. Tavares & M.T.G. Barbosa

    Restoring rural houses in Estonia
    J. Metslang

    Conservation of architectural heritage in Saudi Arabia: The case study of Jawatha Mosque
    M.S. Zami

    Conservation problems and recommendations on architectural heritage of Kastamonu Hanö nu, Turkey
    K. Güler, Z.C. Keçici, A. Acaralıoğlu & Y. Saluk

    Manuals for the recovery of historical centers of Sardinia, Italy
    S. Carrucciu

    Propaganda, improvements and colonisation: The Estado Novo and the vernacular heritage
    V. Ribeiro, J. Aguiar & M. Reimão Costa

    Two contests (1907, 2009) for the design of model, vernacular houses for health resort Lądek Zdrój, Poland
    E. Trocka-Leszczyńska & A. Tomaszewicz

    Changing trade—the Modernist vernacular as idiom in South Africa
    D. Whelan

    The city vernacular in South Africa
    Z.G. Wessels & G. Bosman

    Contemporary vernacular as a diffusion of an innovation process
    J.A. Al-Qawasmi

    Continuity and change of Thai vernacular building tradition in Thailand
    P. Nimsamer & N. Walliman

    Appropriate moderness and the popular pattern of the “Indiana” architecture
    A. Lima

    The effects of socio-economic change on vernacular architecture
    B. Cantimur

    Harmonic Diachrony: Current use of traditional techniques in rehabilitation projects
    M. Alcindor & O. Roselló

    Küreken 2013: Designing a new village with rammed earth construction in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey
    B. Çiçek

    Mértola, museology and earthen architecture in Portugal
    R. Melo da Rosa

    Contemporary earthen architecture in the south west of Portugal, meanings of a heritage
    S.T. Sequeira

    Theme 2 Materials and constructive techniques

    A preliminary study on the construction systems of house types in Timor-Leste (East Timor)
    Y.R. Chen, C.P. Pan, Y.L. Lim, M.Y. Ng & W.W. Huang

    A report of turf ridge (shibamune) in Japanese thatched folk houses
    S. Ono & Y. Yamada

    Construction techniques of the vernacular architecture of the Eastern Black Sea Region
    K. Güler & A.C. Bilge

    Cob in Spain
    C. Mileto, F. Vegas López-Manzanares, V. Cristini & L. García Soriano

    Traditional materials and construction techniques in the rural settlement Baspinar, Turkey
    M. Efeoğlu & A. Çiftçi

    Living with bamboo and plant leaves: Thailand’s last community of traditional bamboo huts
    V. Vacharasin

    Stone constructions in corbelling
    B. Juvanec

    Architectural heritage of the north eastern Portugal: History, construction and valorisation
    L. Martins, G. Vasconcelos & P.B. Lourenço

    An example of vernacular architecture: Traditional houses of Adana, Turkey
    N. Umar, C. Karbeyaz & Ö.O. Polat

    Architectural morphology and construction techniques of traditional Yoran houses, Turkey
    U. Yergün, C.I. Gençer, B. Çelebioğlu & A. Çiftçi

    Typological research on traditional community house of the Katu ethnic minority in Vietnam
    P.H. Truong, H. Kobayashi & T.N. Nguyen

    The vernacular house between the Cá vado and the Ave, Portugal
    C.E. Barroso, D.V. Oliveira, L.F. Ramos & P.B. Lourenço

    Body-based units of measurement for building Katu community houses in Central Vietnam
    H. Kobayashi & T.N. Nguyen

    Rammed earth walls in the late middle age castles in the actual province of Soria, Spain
    I.J. Gil Crespo

    Timber roof structures of centenary earthen buildings—case studies
    A. Tavares, A. Costa & H. Varum

    The importance of knowledge on the vernacular heritage preservation
    A. Costa, D. Silveira, A. Tavares, H. Varum, C. Almeida & A. Arêde

    Recycling of bricks in rammed earth walls
    V. Cristini, C. Mileto, F. Vegas López-Manzanares & J.R. Ruíz Checa

    Gypsum as reinforcement for floors: Conceptual approach
    F. Vegas López-Manzanares, C. Mileto, V. Cristini, J.R. Ruíz Checa & V. La Spina

    Adequacy of mortars for adobe building renders
    A. Velosa & H. Varum

    Use of plasters containing straw in vernacular architecture
    M. Golež & A. Mauko

    Evaluation of air lime and clayish earth mortars for earthen wall renders
    P. Faria, V. Silva, N. Jamú, I. Dias & M.I. Gomes

    Cattail-reinforced clay plasters in building heritage preservation and new constructions
    G.P. Georgiev, W. Theuerkorn, M. Krus & R. Kilian

    Strategies to improve earth building durability
    R. Eires, A. Camões & M. Ponte

    Lime and colour technologies in the vernacular architecture of the Algarve, Portugal
    M. Santos, J. Pernão, J. Aguiar & M. Reimão Costa

    Theme 3 Territory and environmental adaptation

    Understanding landscape and the values of traditional architecture and construction
    F. Vela Cossío & I. Salto-Weis Azevedo

    Good practice for the conservation of urban settlements, vernacular architecture and surrounding landscapes
    R. Eppich, J.C. Espada, C. Cruz & A. Kulmer

    Watermills and traditional landscape in the hills of the Algarve, Portugal
    M. Barão, T. Valente & M. Reimão Costa

    Watermills and weirs from the Ave River: An inter-municipal heritage value in Portugal
    R.B. Matos

    The Pesqueiras of Minho River—a vernacular heritage to preserve
    F. Pacheco, A. Fernandes, X. Ollero & C. Antunes

    Apiary-walls and pitfall-traps in Portugal: Archaic constructions for wild animals
    J.C. Caninas, F. Henriques & F. Álvares

    Brandas and Inverneiras of Castro Laboreiro, Portugal—a settlement model in a high mountain territory
    G. Sousa & R. Correia

    Vernacular settlements in Serra da Peneda, Portugal: The case of Rouças and Gavieira
    A.F. Gomes

    Architecture(s) in Serra da Peneda, Portugal: An approach to settlements on the territory
    F.C. Barros

    Dry stone buildings in Sicily, Italy: An environmental and territorial resource
    L. Dipasquale, V. Megna & R. Prescia

    Underground dwellings in the Tajuña valley, Madrid, Spain and their bioclimatic adaptation
    M.M. Barbero Barrera, I.J. Gil Crespo, L. Maldonado Ramos & J. de Cárdenas y Chávarri

    Bioclimatic comparative analysis in vernacular architecture: Two Sardinia examples
    L.G.F. Cannas & G. Desogus

    Archaeological and vernacular heritage coexistence in rural areas: Didyma, Turkey
    E.O. Polat, E.H. Aslan & B.C. Çetin

    Cacela revisited: A brief study of the architecture and landscape of Algarve, Portugal
    M. Reimão Costa & D. Batista

    Relating religious and vernacular architecture: Convent of Santo António, a case study in Portugal
    A. Rodrigues & A.P. Roders

    The melting vernacular architecture in Maramureş, Romania
    L. Zaharia

    The unrecognized bedouin villages—internal spatial order as a basis for development
    Y. Manor-Rosner, Y. Rofè & S. Abu-Rabia-Queder

    Vernacular architecture in Oman: A case study of transition from wood to cement
    S. Abdulac

    From universal to local: Challenges of safeguarding the vernacular architecture in Turkey
    T.G. Köksal, D. İkiz & B.S. Coşkun

    The patio house in Morocco: A sustainable design strategy
    B. Aguilar, L. Dipasquale & S. Mecca

    Urban heritage in Setúbal’s domestic architecture, Portugal
    I.S. Macedo

    Vernacular architecture within the urban Master Plan of Maia, Portugal
    A.T. Ribeiro, L.F. Loureiro, L. Lousan, R.T. Menezes & S. Aveiro

    Saving Cumalıkızık for the future: Cultural heritage in Turkey
    A.Z. Ahunbay, T. Ayrancılar, A. Polat & A. Uray

    Common cultural heritage in two Ottoman ports: Smyrna and Salonica
    C.I. Gençer

    Theme 4 Energy efficiency and sustainable design

    Study for the rehabilitation of vernacular architecture with sustainable criteria
    I. Costa Carrapiço & J. Neila-González

    The microclimatic design of Southern Sardinian loggias in Italy
    M. Achenza, G. Chiri & I. Giovagnorio

    Assessing energetic self-sufficiency and low environmental impact in Pontes, Portugal
    I. Cabral, G. Machado & A. Coelho

    Energy efficient design strategies for contemporary vernacular buildings in Egypt
    M. Dabaieh

    Responding to extreme climatic conditions through Shovadan architecture, in Dezful, Iran
    Z. Hosseini & R. Vatankhah

    Efforts to resurrect and adapt earth building and passive solar techniques in Ladakh, India
    N. Joshi

    Vernacular principles towards eco-efficiency: A case study in Santiago do Cacém, Portugal
    M. Sampaio & B. Marques

    The potential of vernacular materials to the sustainable building design
    J. Fernandes, R. Mateus & L. Bragança

    Evaluation of sustainable design elements in the historic centre of Nicosia, Cyprus
    M. Philokyprou, A. Michael, S. Thravalou & I. Ioannou

    Local potentials for a sustainable heritage management
    A.M. Labo & D.F. Paraschiv

    The case of village Maće, Republic of Serbia
    M. Dragišić & Z. Đorđević

    Added value by benchmarking: Comparing existing buildings to demonstrate their potential
    N. Silva Brito & M. Gameiro da Silva

    Sustainability of vernacular houses in the inner towns of Muğla, Turkey: Architectural typology and its transformation
    O.B. Avsar & E.A. Levi

    Theme 5 Natural hazards and risk mitigation

    Seismic-V: Vernacular seismic culture in Portugal
    M. Correia, G. Carlos, S. Rocha, P.B. Lourenço, G. Vasconcelos & H. Varum

    The history of New Zealand housing and the performance of different styles in the 2011 Christchurch earthquakes
    H. Morris & M. Worth

    Japanese Dozo-structured buildings damaged by the 2011 Tohoku’s Earthquake
    Y. Yamada, B.S. Hirata & S. Ono

    Improvement of vernacular housing for disaster prone areas in Bangladesh: A six year experience
    O. Moles, M.S. Islam, T.R. Hossain & R.K. Podder

    Seismic risk mitigation of Lorca historic centre masonry residential buildings, in Spain
    A. Guardiola-Víllora & L. Basset-Salom

    Vulnerability assessment of churches under earthquake hazard
    E. Paupério, X. Romão, A. Arêde & A. Costa

    Learning from vernacular building practices: A starting point for risk mitigation
    A. Caimi & M. Hofmann

    A vernacular architectonic tradition hidden behind facades: Concepción’s case in Chile
    H. Capellà Miternique

    Vernacular heritage seismic risk management—ongoing educational project
    J. Vargas Neumann, S. Rodríguez-Larraín, T. Montoya Robles & S. Onnis

    Runner beams as a building element of masonry walls in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey
    Z. Inan

    Experimental investigation on the repair of rammed earth by means of injection of mud grouts
    R.A. Silva, D.V. Oliveira, P.B. Lourenço, L. Schueremans & T. Miranda

    Contemporary installations with timber from disaster reconstructions
    M.B. Dan & D. Mendes

    Theme 6 Education and new research focus

    The DSA-earthen architecture: A tool to convey the lessons of vernacular architecture
    B. Rakotomamonjy, S. Moriset, D. Gandreau & H. Guillaud

    Five years working with the youth: Re-evaluation of earthen heritage in the Western Himalayas
    M. Oeter & A. Skedzuhn

    Addressing Southeast Asian vernacular architecture studies in the changing environment
    R. Oranratmanee

    Vernacular architecture as part of the education of building design
    V. Von Gaudecker & L. Koch

    Exposing architecture students to vernacular concepts
    J.H. Nel & G. Bosman

    Using old farm buildings for transmitting vernacular traditions in Ireland
    A. Meenan & C. Murray

    Reading vernacular heritage: The case of Sino-French joint workshop of Liang Cun, China
    Y. Shao

    Workshop for theoretical and practical conservation of vernacular architecture in Greece
    N.A. Lianos

    Promoting vernacular architecture as a central topic in academic research and education in Mexico
    R. Pennacchio & R. Nicchia

    Earthen architecture, culture of transition and self-construction
    P. Costa

    Contribution of the audio-visual heritage for the dissemination of the vernacular architecture
    J. Marques

    Digital tectonic: Rethinking building with earth in architecture
    B. Varela, A. Paio & V. Rato

    Managing data on construction techniques and damage using digital media
    X. Romão, E. Paupério & A. Costa

    Austronesian houses analyses trough the WDRS-Database
    W.W. Huang, A. Fujii, M.H. Wang & Y.R. Chen

    Three-dimensional reconstitution of an ex-place: The submerged Vilarinho da Furna, Portugal
    D.A. Carvalho, L.M. Mateus & V.M. Ferreira

    VerSus: Vernacular heritage contribution to sustainable architecture
    M. Correia, G. Carlos, J. Merten, D. Viana & S. Rocha

    Preserving vernacular architecture through community intervention and volunteer programmes
    J.D. Badillo

    Vernacular living as a model for innovation and sustainability: The wood furniture of Minho region
    D. Alves, L.P. Pacheco, J. Vicente & G. Sousa

    Research in vernacular architecture in Mexico
    G. Torres Zárate

    Which are the keys for earth building reintroduction in Spanish building system?
    A. Castellarnau Visús

    Social and human aspects in the use of vernacular knowledge
    N. Rey Cuellar

    Author index


    Mariana Correia, Gilberto Carlos, Sandra Rocha