1st Edition

Versatility of Waterjet Technology Machining Materials from Macro- to Microscale

By Peter H.-T. Liu Copyright 2024
    1002 Pages
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    Waterjet technology involves complex flow phenomena, which include supersonic, turbulent, compressible, and three-phase interactions. This book, by the editor and colleagues, distills three decades of R&D expertise from Flow Industries, Inc. and OMAX Corp., based in Kent, Washington, USA. Organized into 10 sections and 32 chapters, it blends physical experiments and limited computational fluid dynamics analyses as R&D methodologies. Through flow visualization and probe measurement, the book characterizes waterjet geometry, water-droplet and abrasive speeds, surface roughness and edge qualities of machined parts, and more. It showcases advancements in micro abrasive-waterjet technology, recognized as a 2016 R&D 100 Awards finalist and honored with the 2016 Tibbitts Award from the U.S. Small Business Administration.

    Part 1

    1. Measurements of Water-Droplets and Abrasive Speeds in an Ultrahigh-Pressure Waterjets and Abrasive-Waterjets

    2. Near-Net Shaping of Optical Surfaces with UHP Abrasive Suspension Jets

    3. Evaluation of Nozzle Health States for AWJ Machining

    4. A Vanishing Abrasive Cryogenic Jet for Airframe Depainting

    5. Enhancement of Ultrahigh-Pressure Technology with LN2 Cryogenic Jets

    Part 2

    6. CFD and Physical Modeling of UHP AWJ Drilling

    7. Hole Drilling with Abrasive Fluidjets

    Part 3

    8. Collateral Damage by Stagnation Pressure Buildup during Abrasive-Fluidjet Piercing

    9. Machining Honeycomb Composites with Abrasive-Waterjets

    10. Piercing in Delicate Materials with Abrasive-Waterjets

    11. Applications of Abrasive-Fluidjets for Precision Machining of Composites

    Part 4

    12. Waterjet Technology for Machining Fine Features Pertaining to Micromachining

    13. Micro Abrasive-Waterjet Technology

    14. Novel Processes for Improving Precision of Abrasive Waterjet Machining

    15. Versatile Micro Abrasive Waterjet Technology for Machining Nanomaterials

    Part 5

    16. Roles of Abrasives in AWJ Meso-Micro Machining

    17. Roles of Taper Compensation in AWJ Ultra-Precision Machining

    18. Precision Machining of Advanced Materials with Waterjets

    Part 6

    19. Application of Abrasive-Waterjet for 3D Machining

    20. Advanced Waterjet Technology for Machining Curved and Layered Structures

    21. Advanced Abrasive Waterjet for Multimode Machining

    Part 7

    22. Abrasive-Waterjet Technology for Biomedical Applications

    23. Low-Cost Manufacturing of Flow Channels with Multi-Nozzle Abrasive-Waterjets: A Feasibility Investigation

    24. Applications of Abrasive-Waterjets for Machining Fatigue-Critical Aerospace Aluminum Parts

    25. Fatigue Performance Enhancement of AWJ-Machined Aircraft Aluminum with Dry-Grit Blasting

    26. Machining of Aircraft Titanium with Abrasive-Waterjets for Fatigue Critical Applications

    Part 8

    27. Economic and Technical Efficiency of High Performance Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    28. "7M" Advantage of Abrasive Waterjet for Machining Advanced Materials

    Part 9

    29. Performance Comparison on Meso-Micro Machining of Waterjet, Lasers, EDM, and CNC Milling

    30. Performance Comparison of Subtractive and Additive Machine Tools for Meso-Micro Machining

    Part 10

    31. Review of Accomplishments in Abrasive-Waterjet Technology from Macro to Micro Machining: Part 1

    32. Review of Accomplishments in Abrasive-Waterjet Technology from Macro to Micro Machining: Part 2


    Peter H.-T. Liu earned his doctorate from Colorado State University, USA, in 1972 and boasts a distinguished 50-year career in experimental fluid dynamics and waterjet technology. He joined Flow Research/Flow Industries, Inc. in 1973 and spearheaded his R&D efforts in experimental fluid dynamics, focusing on qualitative and quantitative flow visualization for both laboratory and field investigations. Research topics spanned from naval hydrodynamics, turbulence in homogeneous and stratified fluids, transport of pollution in complex terrain, to wake studies of wind turbines and aircraft. Under the mentorship of Dr John H. Olsen, he transitioned his research focus in 1995 to waterjet technology, leading to significant advancements and successful commercialization in waterjet micromachining. Dr Liu’s extensive experience uniquely prepared him to tackle waterjet challenges, fostering collaborations with universities and research institutes, resulting in his numerous publications. Despite retiring from OMAX/Hypertherm in March 2022, he continues his R&D endeavors, currently focusing on precision micromachining, and is working on a second book detailing the history of waterjets.


     “The inaugural BHRA Waterjet Conference in 1972 marked the beginning of high-pressure waterjets’ transformation from laboratory novelties to indispensable industrial tools, now comprising a multi-billion-dollar market annually. The pioneering research behind this evolution, initially documented in conference proceedings, technical journals, and books, is now at risk due to many of these publications being out of print as original authors retire. This collection of papers tracks the evolution of abrasive-waterjet studies, providing a vital repository of empirical data, methodologies, and innovative thinking that drove this technical revolution. It also offers insights into resolving manufacturing challenges, many of which are now solvable. Peter was uniquely positioned both to conduct research advancing waterjet technology and now to provide this permanent record.”

    Curators’ Professor Emeritus David A. Summers

    Missouri University of Science and Technology, USA


    I have known Dr Peter Liu as a prolific author and distinguished scholar for about 45 years. In the first half of Dr Liu’s career, his research was focused on fluid mechanics and instrumentation, which enriched the other half of his career focusing on abrasive waterjet machining (AWJM). In this excellent compilation, Dr Liu brings together a wealth of knowledge covering a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from fundamentals to cutting-edge applications. This diversity and capabilities of the AWJ technology will benefit readers with a wealth of knowledge and provide a deep understanding of the intricate interplay between different AWJs and materials parameters. From shaping and milling to precision drilling, the versatility of AWJM is showcased through real-world examples and case studies, illustrating its efficacy in manufacturing, aerospace, automotive, and beyond. This book uniquely delves into micro abrasive waterjet machining (μAWJM), wherein Dr Liu’s research opens new vistas for high-precision, miniature-scale machining, with implications for microelectronics, medical devices, and micro-manufacturing.”

    Dr Mohamed Hashish

    Flow International Corporation, and University of Washington, USA