1st Edition

Victimisation in the Digital Age An Online/Offline Continuum Approach

Edited By Tine Munk, Morag Kennedy Copyright 2025
    280 Pages 6 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Examining how victimisation can occur across the online-offline continuum while emphasising the need for a holistic approach to understanding and addressing contemporary harms, this book covers various themes of victimisation in the digital age linked to the interconnectedness and blurred boundaries between online and offline experiences.

    Offering a critical examination of how digital advancements have paved the way for new forms of victimisation, the book underlines the crucial role of criminology in confronting these issues and shaping policy. It covers a variety of themes, from the nuances of cybercrime and the repercussions of modern technologies on intimate partner violence and sexual abuse, to hate crimes against marginalised groups, extremism, and information disorder. Central to these areas is the Online-Offline Continuum approach, which encapsulates the blending of the digital and physical realms, challenging the conventional dichotomy in which they are often considered. Through its extensive exploration of diverse subjects, this book provides a thorough overview of different victimisation types, deepening our comprehension of the intricate challenges in online and offline spaces.

    A critical resource, blending theoretical insights, methodological rigour, and practical strategies to comprehensively dissect victimisation in the digital era, Victimisation in the Digital Age will appeal to students, scholars and practitioners with an interest in criminology, victimology, sociology and communication studies.

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    List of Contributors


    List of Abbreviations


    Part 1:

    Cybercrime and Online/Offline Harm

    1.     Introduction

     Morag C. Kennedy

    2.     Navigating the Online/Offline Continuum: Exploring Victims, Spaces, and Dangers

    Tine Munk, Zara A. Crawford, Elliot Doornbos, Ammaarah Faisal, Naomi Graham, Ellen Harris, Craig A. Jackson, Morag C. Kennedy, Boglarka Meggyesfalvi, Sara Rodriguez.

    3.     When Worlds Collide

     Philip Wane

    Part 2:

    Politically and Ideologically Motivated Harm

    4.     A Cycle of Online Radicalisation, Attacks and Extremist Content: A Case Study of Four Terrrorist Acts in Norway

    Thais Sardá and Karine Nordnes Skoglund

    5.     An Exploration of How Online Threats can Impact Mosque Worshippers and the Factors which Enables this

     Mikhail Sulaiman Azard

    6.     Online Hate, Offline Violence: Antisemitism as a Memetic Hatred

    Ariel Koch

    7.     Deception as an Online Weapon, Does the Truth Matter?

    Juan Ahmad and Tine Munk

    Part 3:

    Intimate Partner Violence and Image-based Sexual Abuse

    8.     Changning the Law on Intimate Image Abuse: A New Paradigm for Image-based Domestic Abuse?

    Kirsty Welsh

    9.     Examine Cyberbullying and Cyberstalking through the Lens of Intimate Partner Violence: A Caribbean Perspective.

    Chantelle Cummings

    10.  When Cyberspace Turns Deadly: The Significance of Online Harassment in Intimate Partner Homicide

    Megan Cadwallader and Morag C. Kennedy

    Part 4:

    Hate Crime and Minority Groups

    11.  Why do We Need a Territorial Typology of Gender-based Political Violence? An Analysis of the Online and Offline Harms Suffered by Brazilian Female Politicians Defending Territory

     Ladyane Souza, Luise Koch, Maria Paula Russo Riva and Raji Ghawi

    12.  From Telegram to Tate Britain: Drag Queen Story Hour and the British Extreme Right

     Cathrine Stinton

    13.  ‘Seriously, Don’t Leave Your Flat’… I was Doxxed

    Grayson Bartles


    Part 5:

    New Challenges and the Future:

    14.  Dolls and Sex Robots: Panacea or Pandora’s Box.

    Neil Radford

    15.  Concluding Remarks: The Merge of the Online and Offline Worlds

    Tine Munk



    Tine Munk is a Senior Lecturer at Nottingham Trent University, specialising in cybercrime and cybersecurity, predominantly in political contexts. This research is reflected in publications including ‘The Rise of Politically Motivated Cyber Attacks’ (2023), ‘Memetic War: Civic Resistance in Ukraine’ (2024), and ‘Far-Right Extremism Online: Beyond the Fringe’ (2024).

    Morag Kennedy is a Senior Lecturer at Nottingham Trent University, focusing on intimate partner abuse and homicide involving digital harm, primarily considering co-victim perspectives. Recent publications include ‘They didn’t want to upset the client: Stalking in Hands-On Occupations’ (2023) and ‘Digital Coercive Control: A Male Perspective’ (2022).