866 Pages
    by CRC Press

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    Collection of 120 peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 3rd International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, held in Leiria, Portugal in September 2007. Essential reading for all those working on V&RP, focused on inducing increased collaboration between industry and academia. In addition to keynotes dealing with cutting-edge manufacturing engineering issues, contributions deal with  topical research virtual and rapid prototyping (V&RP), such as: 1. biomanufacturing, 2. CAD and 3D data acquistion technologies, 3. materials, 4. rapid tooling and manufacturing, 6. advanced rapid prototyping technologies and nanofabrication, 7. virtual environments, 8. collaborative design and engineering and 9. various applications.

    Invited lectures

    • State of the industry
    • Rapid manufacturing of metallic objects: A challenge for research and industry
    • Data fusion and shape retrieval methods for 3D geometric structures
    • Scan and solve: Acquiring the physics of artifacts
    • Tangible virtual reality for product design
    • Interoperability isn’t (yet), and what’s being done about it
    • The use of multiple materials in Rapid Prototyping
    • A novel poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-collagen hybrid scaffold fabricated via multi-nozzle low-temperature deposition
    • Scaffold-based bone engineering by using Rapid Prototyping Technologies


    • Mechanical behaviour and vascularisation analysis of tissue engineering scaffolds
    • Evolutionary optimization for soft tissue engineering
    • Porogen-based solid freeform fabrication of polycaprolactone-calcium phosphate scaffolds for tissue engineering
    • Development of novel rapid-freeze prototyping for tissue engineering
    • Evaluation of degradation of bioabsorbable polycaprolactone used in Rapid Prototyping for medical application
    • Laser powder micro deposition of Ti6Al4V for the rapid manufacture of dental implants
    • Functionally graded scaffolds: The challenges in design and fabrication processes
    • Characterisation of HA/polymer bio-composite structure fabricated by selective laser sintering
    • Classification of image artifacts due to amalgam restoration in Computed Tomography for the improvement of Rapid Prototyping biomodels
    • InVesalius: Three-dimensional medical reconstruction software
    • Two-dimensional X-ray simulation based on Computed Tomography images
    • An integrated physical and virtual prototyping approach for medical applications
    • The virtual biomodel as a complementary resource for the diagnosis of mandibular ankylosis
    • Customized implant development for maxillo-mandibular reconstruction
    • Rapid Prototyping applied to surgical planning for correcting craniofacial malformations in wild animals.A case study of a brazilian fox
    • BioExtrusion for tissue engineering applications

    CAD and 3D data acquisition technologies

    • Automatic usability data acquisition and interface simulation using stereolithography mock-up and internal video analysis
    • Heterogeneous soft material modeling and virtual prototyping with 5-DOF haptic force feedback for product development
    • Reverse engineering from 3D optical acquisition: Application to crime scene investigation
    • A novel high-resolution algorithm for detecting laser stripe center
    • Fast digitizing of 3D shapes by automatic alignment of multiple range maps
    • Coded targets photogrammetry for 3D digitization of human faces
    • Surface roughness parameters determination model in machining with the use of design and visualization technologies
    • Preliminary budget methodology for reverse engineering applications using laser scanning
    • A Neural Network technique for re-meshing of bone micro-structure
    • Knowledge representation for subassembly designing using CBR methodology
    • Theses analysis on CAD/RP technology
    • Agile-CAD for reverse engineering


    • Electrowetting based multi-microfluidics array printing of high resolution tissue construct with embedded cells and growth factors
    • Fabrication of functionally graded bio materials by Nano Composite Deposition System
    • Biodegradable stereolithography resins with defined mechanical properties
    • The influence of bond-coating on plasma sprayed alumina-titania, doped with biologically derived hydroxyapatite, on stainless steal
    • Acrylic based hydrogel phantom for in-vitro ultrasound contrast agent characterization
    • A study of the degradation of Duraform PA due to cyclic processing
    • The manufacturing of PMMA/PS blends by selective laser sintering
    • Manufacture by selective laser sintering of functionally graded PA6/PA12 components with applications in antifriction materials
    • Investigation of shrinkage strains in a photo-curable resin for 3D micro-fabrication using a FBG sensor
    • Development of nanocomposite material for rapid manufacturing: Application in microreactor technology
    • Manufacturing cellular materials via Three-Dimensional Printing of spray-dried metal oxide ceramic powder
    • Material characterization for Fused Deposition of Ceramics
    • Localized irradiations for covalent graftings on glass substrates
    • Rapid prototyping of amorphous silica through laser stereolithography
    • Development of a model to optimize the sand shape and post process parameters for parts produced by Direct Croning Process
    • Additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V based components with high power fiber lasers
    • Copper powder densification by means of DMLF process: The effect of energy density input and oxidation
    • Foaming alginate for tissue engineering
    • The effect of thermal conductivity of RIM moulds in kinetics cure
    • Composition and cure temperature: The influence on properties of final flexible PU cold cure foam parts

    Rapid tooling and manufacturing

    • Digitally Adjustable Tooling technology for dieless forming and jigless assembly of panels
    • Rapid Tooling and the LOMOLD process
    • Fabrication of stainless steel and ceramic parts with the Optoform process
    • Manufacturing criteria in hybrid modular tools: How to combine additive and subtractive processes
    • The effect of the mould material selection and production methodology on the thermal behaviour and tribology of injection moulds
    • CAD/CAE techniques to prevent premature failure in direct AIM moulding inserts
    • Rapid Tooling aided by Virtual Prototyping for blow-molds development
    • Multiple material moulds – Directives for blow moulding design
    • Rapid Prototyping applied to a new development in moulds for rotational moulding
    • Rapid Tooling route selection and evaluation for sand and investment casting
    • Direct manufacturing of pneumatic grippers by stereolithography
    • Rapid Metal Casting – A review of present status
    • Pursuing successful Rapid Manufacturing in a standards-less industry: A best practice approach
    • Application of Rapid Prototyping/Rapid Tooling in manufacturing experimental stereotypes of new-style emitters

    Advanced rapid prototyping technologies and nanofabrication

    • Laser Micro Sintering – A new method to generate metal and ceramic parts of high resolution with sub-micrometer powder
    • Process accuracy during laser based stereo lithography and production of Ormocer® microsystems with related mechanical properties
    • Freeform fabrication of metals by 3D Micro Welding
    • Deep Proton Writing: A tool for rapid prototyping of polymer micro-opto-mechanical modules
    • Feedback control of Selective Laser Melting
    • Selective Laser Melting of lattice structures in solid shells
    • Complex structure micro-parts formed with Selective Laser Melting method
    • Type HRPM-II machine for Selective Laser Melting process
    • Investigation on polyamide powder properties deterioration and efficient powder recycling in Laser Sintering
    • Influence of the process parameters on the liquid bridges between particles in SLS
    • Application of rapid manufacturing to build artifacts for using in microgravity environment. - An International Space Station case
    • Intelligent optimization of process parameters in selective laser sintering
    • Expanding applications and opportunities with polyjet™ Rapid Prototyping technology
    • A novel combination of materials for rapid manufacturing of 3-dimensional objects by ink-jet printing
    • Super-saturation drowning-out coating of metal particles for usage in layered manufacturing processes; Process development, design and manufacturing of coating machine
    • SEDS – A new rapid prototyping method based on metal powder sintering
    • Laminated Object Manufacturing with aluminium bonded sheets
    • Ultrasonic Consolidation with aluminum and copper
    • Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) as small batch production method
    • Some experimental studies of mechanical behavior of FDM Rapid Prototyped parts
    • Part strength analysis of Shell Assisted Layer Manufacturing (SALM)
    • Effect of constraint on residual stresses and deformations in weld based Rapid Prototyping
    • Investigations of the energy input of different metal processing, additive layer manufacturing methods
    • A new 2D inner/outer contour identification method for layer manufacturing
    • Putting it all together: Rapid Prototype as Design
    • Multi-objective optimal positioning and packing for layered manufacturing
    • Lean thinking and Rapid Prototyping: Towards a shorter distance between the drawing board and the construction site
    • Novel Rapid Prototyping processes - building movable parts
    • Functionally Gradient Material laser rapid prototyping system

    Virtual environments

    • 3D Photo-realistic talking head for human-robot interaction
    • Human machine interaction based on Bayesian analysis of human movements
    • Collaborative workspace for aircraft maintenance
    • Generation of an automobile driving training interactive environment
    • Functional requirements for user-interface architectures for Virtual Enterprise dynamic reconfiguration
    • The feasibility of consumer evaluation of products using virtual prototyping technologies
    • Digital fabrication in the arts: Just another technical reproduction advance leap or a new artistic revolution?
    • Modeling of heat transfer and phase transformations in the rapid manufacturing of dental prosthesis by laser powder micro-deposition

    Collaborative design and engineering

    • 3D scan and RP for the as-built data collection and related design studies in a city
    • Augmented Prototyping as a design means for industrial design - a multiple case analysis
    • Method for increasing innovation capacity in development of casing type details
    • The impact of the Rapid Prototyping in the product design development
    • A new conceptual framework based on the ECSI model to support Axiomatic Design
    • Efficiency analysis of prototype evolution methodology on collaborative design
    • Whither one of a kind?
    • Custom design, more than custom to fit!


    • Saving a project through Rapid Manufacture in South Africa
    • Mass customization of foot or thoses for rheumatoid arthritis
    • Tactile scale models: Three-dimensional info-graphics for space orientation of the blind and visually impaired
    • Using intelligent prototypes to improve the aerodynamic design of race car aerofoil profiles
    • Effect of wind loading on low rise buildings using finite element modelling and Computational Fluid Dynamics:A Commercially Focused Approach
    • Rapid product development by reverse engineering
    • Study of a composite material with metallic particles for application in an automobile component
    • Development of a type of sandwich panels for the aeronautical industry
    • Study and characterization of a material with carbon fibres for the production of an ergonomic easy chair


    Paulo Bartolo is Professor of Advanced Manufacturing Processes at the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (IPL), Portugal, and Head of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the School of Technology and Management of IPL. He is Co-Director of the Postgraduate Research Centre at IPL, Fellow of the Institute of Polymers and Composites at the University of Minho (Portugal), Advisor of the Portuguese Agency for the Development and Innovation and President of the Portuguese Rapid Prototyping Association. He is Editor in Chief of Virtual & Physical Prototyping www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/17452759.asp.