Visual Cryptography and Secret Image Sharing  book cover
1st Edition

Visual Cryptography and Secret Image Sharing

ISBN 9781439837214
Published August 10, 2011 by CRC Press
546 Pages 37 Color & 214 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

With rapid progress in Internet and digital imaging technology, there are more and more ways to easily create, publish, and distribute images. Considered the first book to focus on the relationship between digital imaging and privacy protection, Visual Cryptography and Secret Image Sharing is a complete introduction to novel security methods and sharing-control mechanisms used to protect against unauthorized data access and secure dissemination of sensitive information.

Image data protection and image-based authentication techniques offer efficient solutions for controlling how private data and images are made available only to select people. Essential to the design of systems used to manage images that contain sensitive data—such as medical records, financial transactions, and electronic voting systems—the methods presented in this book are useful to counter traditional encryption techniques, which do not scale well and are less efficient when applied directly to image files.

An exploration of the most prominent topics in digital imaging security, this book discusses:

  • Potential for sharing multiple secrets
  • Visual cryptography schemes—based either on the probabilistic reconstruction of the secret image, or on different logical operations for combining shared images
  • Inclusion of pictures in the distributed shares
  • Contrast enhancement techniques
  • Color-image visual cryptography
  • Cheating prevention
  • Alignment problems for image shares
  • Steganography and authentication

In the continually evolving world of secure image sharing, a growing number of people are becoming involved as new applications and business models are being developed all the time. This contributed volume gives academicians, researchers, and professionals the insight of well-known experts on key concepts, issues, trends, and technologies in this emerging field.

Table of Contents

Visual Cryptography from Halftone Error Diffusion, G.R. Arce, Z. Wang, and G. Di Crescenzo

Visual Secret Sharing

Halftone VSS Construction Using Error Diffusion

Halftone VSS Construction Using Parallel Error Diffusion

Quality of Halftone Shares


Simulation Results


Visual Cryptography for Color Images, S. Cimato, R. De Prisco, and A. De Santis

Color Superposition

Formal Models for Colored VCS

Schemes for the sc Model

Schemes for the nd Model

Schemes for the general Model

Other Schemes


Visual Cryptography for Multiple Secrets, S.J. Shyu

Naor and Shamir's Basic Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

Visual Two-Secret Sharing Schemes

Visual Multiple-Secret Sharing Schemes


Extended Visual Cryptography for Photograph Images, Y. Yamaguchi

Basic Visual Cryptography Schemes

Fundamentals of Photograph Visual Cryptography

Variations of Photograph Visual Cryptography

Misalignment-Tolerant Photograph Visual Cryptography


Probabilistic Visual Cryptography Schemes, S. Cimato, R. De Prisco, and A. De Santis

Visual Cryptography Schemes

Canonical Probabilistic Schemes

Probabilistic Schemes with No Pixel Expansion

Trading Pixel Expansion with Probabilities

Constructing Probabilistic Schemes

Probabilistic Schemes with Boolean Operations

Conclusions and Open Problems


XOR-Based Visual Cryptography, D. Wang and L. Dong


Visual Cryptography Scheme Using the Polarization of Light

Visual Cryptography Scheme with Reversing

Secret Sharing Scheme Using Boolean Operation


Visual Cryptography and Random Grids, S. Jian Shyu

Random Grids

Visual Cryptograms of Random Grids


Visual Cryptography and Contrast Bounds, A. Klein


Approximate Inclusion Exclusion

Designs and Codes

Optimal 3-out-of-n Schemes

Asymptotic Optimal k-out-of-n Schemes

Contrast Tradeoffs for Extended Visual Cryptography Schemes

Enhancing the Contrast by Nonstandard Models


Visual Cryptography Schemes with Reversing, A. De Santis, A. Lisa Ferrara, and B. Masucci

Visual Cryptography Schemes

Almost Ideal Contrast VCS with Reversing

Ideal Contrast VCS with Reversing


Cheating Prevention in Visual Cryptography, Y.-C. Chen, G. Horng, and D.-S. Tsai


Cheating Prevention Schemes

Analysis of Cheating Prevention Schemes


Resolving the Alignment Problem in Visual Cryptography, F. Liu


Misalignment with Integer Number of Subpixels

Misalignment with Less Than One Subpixel

A Misalignment Tolerant VCS

Conclusions and Discussions



Applications of Visual Cryptography, B. Borchert and K. Reinhardt

Trojan-Secure Confirmation of Transactions

Trojan-Secure Authentication Using a PIN

Security Versus Multiple Use

Using Refraction

Technical Problems Concerning Adjustment and Parallaxes

Voting with a Receipt Based on Visual Cryptography


Steganography in Halftone Images, O.C. Au, Y. Guo, and J.S. Ho

A Review of Error Diffusion

Data Hiding by Stochastic Error Diffusion (DHSED)

Data Hiding by Conjugate Error Diffusion (DHCED)

Performance Analysis


Image Secret Sharing, W.-Q. Yan, J. Weir, and M.S. Kankanhalli

State of the Art

Approaches for Image Sharing

Experiment and Evaluation


Polynomial-based Image Sharing, S.-J. Wang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-T. Chen

Polynomial-Based Sharing Scheme

Preliminaries and Related Works

Wang et al.'s Scheme

Experimental Results


Image Sharing with Steganography and Authentication, Z.-X. Yin, C.-C. Lin, and C.-C. Chang

Related Work

Adopted Techniques in the Proposed Scheme

Proposed Scheme

Experimental Results


Two-Decoding-Option Image Sharing Method, C.-N. Yang, C.-B. Ciou, and T.-S. Chen


Previous Works

A New (k, n)-TiOISSS

Experimental Results and Comparisons

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