1st Edition

Visual Cryptography and Secret Image Sharing

Edited By Stelvio Cimato, Ching-Nung Yang Copyright 2012
    546 Pages 37 Color & 214 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    546 Pages 37 Color & 214 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    546 Pages 37 Color & 214 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    With rapid progress in Internet and digital imaging technology, there are more and more ways to easily create, publish, and distribute images. Considered the first book to focus on the relationship between digital imaging and privacy protection, Visual Cryptography and Secret Image Sharing is a complete introduction to novel security methods and sharing-control mechanisms used to protect against unauthorized data access and secure dissemination of sensitive information.

    Image data protection and image-based authentication techniques offer efficient solutions for controlling how private data and images are made available only to select people. Essential to the design of systems used to manage images that contain sensitive data—such as medical records, financial transactions, and electronic voting systems—the methods presented in this book are useful to counter traditional encryption techniques, which do not scale well and are less efficient when applied directly to image files.

    An exploration of the most prominent topics in digital imaging security, this book discusses:

    • Potential for sharing multiple secrets
    • Visual cryptography schemes—based either on the probabilistic reconstruction of the secret image, or on different logical operations for combining shared images
    • Inclusion of pictures in the distributed shares
    • Contrast enhancement techniques
    • Color-image visual cryptography
    • Cheating prevention
    • Alignment problems for image shares
    • Steganography and authentication

    In the continually evolving world of secure image sharing, a growing number of people are becoming involved as new applications and business models are being developed all the time. This contributed volume gives academicians, researchers, and professionals the insight of well-known experts on key concepts, issues, trends, and technologies in this emerging field.

    Visual Cryptography from Halftone Error Diffusion, G.R. Arce, Z. Wang, and G. Di Crescenzo

    Visual Secret Sharing

    Halftone VSS Construction Using Error Diffusion

    Halftone VSS Construction Using Parallel Error Diffusion

    Quality of Halftone Shares


    Simulation Results


    Visual Cryptography for Color Images, S. Cimato, R. De Prisco, and A. De Santis

    Color Superposition

    Formal Models for Colored VCS

    Schemes for the sc Model

    Schemes for the nd Model

    Schemes for the general Model

    Other Schemes


    Visual Cryptography for Multiple Secrets, S.J. Shyu

    Naor and Shamir's Basic Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Visual Two-Secret Sharing Schemes

    Visual Multiple-Secret Sharing Schemes


    Extended Visual Cryptography for Photograph Images, Y. Yamaguchi

    Basic Visual Cryptography Schemes

    Fundamentals of Photograph Visual Cryptography

    Variations of Photograph Visual Cryptography

    Misalignment-Tolerant Photograph Visual Cryptography


    Probabilistic Visual Cryptography Schemes, S. Cimato, R. De Prisco, and A. De Santis

    Visual Cryptography Schemes

    Canonical Probabilistic Schemes

    Probabilistic Schemes with No Pixel Expansion

    Trading Pixel Expansion with Probabilities

    Constructing Probabilistic Schemes

    Probabilistic Schemes with Boolean Operations

    Conclusions and Open Problems


    XOR-Based Visual Cryptography, D. Wang and L. Dong


    Visual Cryptography Scheme Using the Polarization of Light

    Visual Cryptography Scheme with Reversing

    Secret Sharing Scheme Using Boolean Operation


    Visual Cryptography and Random Grids, S. Jian Shyu

    Random Grids

    Visual Cryptograms of Random Grids


    Visual Cryptography and Contrast Bounds, A. Klein


    Approximate Inclusion Exclusion

    Designs and Codes

    Optimal 3-out-of-n Schemes

    Asymptotic Optimal k-out-of-n Schemes

    Contrast Tradeoffs for Extended Visual Cryptography Schemes

    Enhancing the Contrast by Nonstandard Models


    Visual Cryptography Schemes with Reversing, A. De Santis, A. Lisa Ferrara, and B. Masucci

    Visual Cryptography Schemes

    Almost Ideal Contrast VCS with Reversing

    Ideal Contrast VCS with Reversing


    Cheating Prevention in Visual Cryptography, Y.-C. Chen, G. Horng, and D.-S. Tsai


    Cheating Prevention Schemes

    Analysis of Cheating Prevention Schemes


    Resolving the Alignment Problem in Visual Cryptography, F. Liu


    Misalignment with Integer Number of Subpixels

    Misalignment with Less Than One Subpixel

    A Misalignment Tolerant VCS

    Conclusions and Discussions



    Applications of Visual Cryptography, B. Borchert and K. Reinhardt

    Trojan-Secure Confirmation of Transactions

    Trojan-Secure Authentication Using a PIN

    Security Versus Multiple Use

    Using Refraction

    Technical Problems Concerning Adjustment and Parallaxes

    Voting with a Receipt Based on Visual Cryptography


    Steganography in Halftone Images, O.C. Au, Y. Guo, and J.S. Ho

    A Review of Error Diffusion

    Data Hiding by Stochastic Error Diffusion (DHSED)

    Data Hiding by Conjugate Error Diffusion (DHCED)

    Performance Analysis


    Image Secret Sharing, W.-Q. Yan, J. Weir, and M.S. Kankanhalli

    State of the Art

    Approaches for Image Sharing

    Experiment and Evaluation


    Polynomial-based Image Sharing, S.-J. Wang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-T. Chen

    Polynomial-Based Sharing Scheme

    Preliminaries and Related Works

    Wang et al.'s Scheme

    Experimental Results


    Image Sharing with Steganography and Authentication, Z.-X. Yin, C.-C. Lin, and C.-C. Chang

    Related Work

    Adopted Techniques in the Proposed Scheme

    Proposed Scheme

    Experimental Results


    Two-Decoding-Option Image Sharing Method, C.-N. Yang, C.-B. Ciou, and T.-S. Chen


    Previous Works

    A New (k, n)-TiOISSS

    Experimental Results and Comparisons


    Stelvio Cimato, Ching-Nung Yang