Visualization and Verbalization of Data shows how correspondence analysis and related techniques enable the display of data in graphical form, which results in the verbalization of the structures in data. Renowned researchers in the field trace the history of these techniques and cover their current applications.
The first part of the book explains the historical origins of correspondence analysis and associated methods. The second part concentrates on the contributions made by the school of Jean-Paul Benzécri and related movements, such as social space and geometric data analysis. Although these topics are viewed from a French perspective, the book makes them understandable to an international audience.
Throughout the text, well-known experts illustrate the use of the methods in practice. Examples include the spatial visualization of multivariate data, cluster analysis in computer science, the transformation of a textual data set into numerical data, the use of quantitative and qualitative variables in multiple factor analysis, different possibilities of recoding data prior to visualization, and the application of duality diagram theory to the analysis of a contingency table.
Table of Contents
History of Correspondence Analysis and Related Methods
Some Prehistory of CARME: Visual Language and Visual Thinking, Michael Friendly and Matthew Sigal
Some History of Algebraic Canonical Forms and Data Analysis, John C. Gower
Historical Elements of Correspondence Analysis and Multiple Correspondence Analysis, Ludovic Lebart and Gilbert Saporta
History of Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis, Jan de Leeuw
History of Canonical Correspondence Analysis, Cajo J.F. ter Braak
History of Multiway Component Analysis and Three-Way Correspondence Analysis, Pieter M. Kroonenberg
Past, Present, and Future of Multidimensional Scaling, Patrick J.F. Groenen and Ingwer Borg
History of Cluster Analysis, Fionn Murtagh
The Contribution of Benzécri and the French School
Simple Correspondence Analysis, Pierre Cazes
Distributional Equivalence and Linguistics, Monica Bécue-Bertaut
Multiple Correspondence Analysis, François Husson and Julie Josse
Structured Data Analysis, Brigitte Le Roux
Empirical Construction of Bourdieu’s Social Space, Jörg Blasius and Andreas Schmitz
Multiple Factor Analysis: General Presentation and Comparison with Statis, Jérôme Pagès
Data Doubling and Fuzzy Coding, Michael Greenacre
Symbolic Data Analysis: A Factorial Approach Based on Fuzzy Coded Data, Rosanna Verde and Edwin Diday
Group Average Linkage Compared to Ward’s Method in Hierarchical Clustering, Maurice Roux
Analyzing a Pair of Tables: Co-Inertia Analysis and Duality Diagrams, Stéphane Dray
"This book presents a set of techniques for data analysis, together with the history of how these methods were developed. The audience seems to be those who are interested in these techniques, or, invested already in them, are curious about the history and intellectual process that led to their development… VAVOD [Visualization and Verbalization of Data] is a worthwhile read. Many of the chapters can be used as stand-alone introductions to particular techniques, including both theory and applications; as a collection, they offer a somewhat uneven but wide ranging and far reaching overview of a vibrant field of intellectual activity. The fact that many of the chapters are written by founders of the field, writing about techniques they created, refined and developed over decades, lends this book unusual gravitas as both a work of reference and as a document."
—Omar De la Cruz Cabrera, Kent State University, in The American Statistician, August 2016
"Given the continuing digitization of all facets of modern societies, we are fed with rapidly growing masses of data. At this pace, visualization is one decisive step to go beyond the factual knowledge of distributions to the recognition of conceptual spaces by advanced analytic methods. The big challenge will continue to be the verbalization of what we see as results of the analyses. This book lays the ground for significant advances on the way forward."
—From the Foreword by Ekkehard Mochmann, Cologne