Voluntary environmental agreements (VEAs) – generally agreements between government and business – have been regarded by many as a key new instrument for meeting environmental objectives in a flexible manner. Their performance to date has, however, also led to considerable criticism, with several parties arguing that they are methods for avoiding real action that goes beyond "business-as-usual". Is either of these positions justified?
The aim of this book is to highlight and learn the lessons from existing experience, looking not just at results but also at specific elements of agreements and also at the process of the agreement itself. Lessons are drawn from experience from across the world, covering the full range of environmental challenges, and from the perspective of key stakeholder groups. Importantly, the book also presents tools for assessing and improving existing agreements and includes recommendations and guidelines for future agreements in key areas such as climate change. It also deals at length with the problem of how such agreements might be used in developing and transitional economies.
The overall view of the book is that there is a real potential for the future use of VEAs as part of the policy mix and as a tool for sharing the responsibility for meeting environmental objectives. For the agreements to play this role, however, significant steps are needed to ensure that they are effective, efficient, equitable and appropriately linked to a portfolio of other instruments.
The book is divided into four sections. First, existing agreements, their development and efficacy are considered; second, the prospects for voluntary agreements in developing and transitional economies are discussed; third, a range of authors examine the role of VEAs as part of the policy mix to combat climate change; and, finally, the book concludes with an examination of how new tools for evaluating and improving VEAs could be utilized in the future.
Voluntary Environmental Agreements will be of interest not only to academics, governments and businesses wishing to understand this specific instrument, but also to those already implementing or considering applying VEAs to meet their environmental objectives.
Foreword Jean-Philippe Barde, Head National Policies Division, OECD Environment Directorate Prologue Patrick ten Brink, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), Belgium Part A: Process, practice and stakeholder experiencePart A: Introduction Patrick ten Brink 1. Voluntary environmental initiatives and sustainable industry Bruce Paton, The Silicon Valley Center for Innovation and Sustainability, USA 2. Corporate incentives for participation in voluntary environmental agreements: electric utility companies and the Climate Challenge Program Panagiotis Karamanos, Athens International Airport, Greece 3. Co-operative environmental solutions: acquiring competence for multi-stakeholder partnerships Ken Sexton, Barbara Scott Murdock and Alfred A. Marcus, University of Minnesota, USA 4. Legitimacy, efficacy and efficiency: factors affecting public participation in environmental agreements in British Columbia, Canada Michael Mascarenhas, Michigan State University, USA 5. Conflict or collaboration: the New Zealand Forest Accord Diane Menzies, Menzies Environmental Ltd 6. Successful application of environmental agreements in local communities: perspectives from environment and pollution control agreements in Japan Rie Tsutsumi, University of Cambridge, UK7. The chemical industry in Germany: recent developments of the 1987 Chemical Industries Social Partners' Agreement on Environmental ProtectionBernd Heins and Laurent Lüttge, University of Oldenburg/University of Lüneburg, Germany8. A new trade union role in environmental agreements: a driving force for sustainable developmentPer Erik Boivie, Boivie Arbetsplatsutveckling AB, Sweden9. EU-level agreements: a successful tool? Lessons from the agreement with the automotive industryGiulio Volpi and Stephan Singer, World Wide Fund for Nature Climate Change Campaign, BelgiumPart B: New areas for VEAs? Developing countries and transition economiesPart B: IntroductionPatrick ten Brink10. A role for negotiated environmental agreements in developing countries?Jonathon Hanks, University of Lund, Sweden11. A national tripartite agreement on benzene in BrazilNilton Freitas, Unified Workers' Confederation (CUT Brazil), and Winston Gereluk, Athabasca University, Canada12. Environmental agreements as appropriate long-term measuresNur Masripatin, Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia13. Negotiated voluntary environmental agreements: cases in the Czech RepublicAntonin Dvorák, Ales Lisa and Petr Sauer, University of Economics in Prague, Czech Republic14. Navigating toward a Hungarian packaging waste management solutionDinah A. Koehler, Harvard University, USA15. Conditions for environmental agreements in UkraineOleksandr Stegniy, Institute of Sociology, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine16. Step-by-step procedure for preparing, concluding and evaluating voluntary agreementsPetr Sauer, Jaromir Kovár, Petr Fiala, Petra Holcová, Ales Lisa and Antonin Dvorák, University of Economics in Prague, Czech Republic Part C: Can voluntary agreements help address climate change?Part C: IntroductionPatrick ten Brink17. The Australian Greenhouse Challenge programme: a perspective from a participating universityPaul Osmond, University of New South Wales, Australia18. Application of effectiveness analysis: the case of greenhouse gas emissions reductionRoger L. Burritt, The Australian National University19. Voluntary agreements: key to higher energy efficiency in industry?Signe Krarup, AKF, Denmark, and Stephan Ramesohl, The Wuppertal Institute, Germany20. Environmental agreements in climate politicsAsbjørn Torvanger and Tora Skodvin, Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, Norway21. Negotiated environmental agreements and CO2 emissions tradingJohan Albrecht and Delphine Francois, Ghent University (CEEM), Belgium22. Voluntary agreements: an effective tool for enhancing organisational learning and improving climate policy-making?Stephan Ramesohl and Kora Kristof, The Wuppertal Institute, GermanyPart D: Future use: tools for developing agreementsPart D: IntroductionPatrick ten Brink23. Voluntary agreements: effectiveness analysis. Tools, guidelines and checklistRoger L. Burritt, The Australian National University24. Assessing the performance of negotiated environmental agreements in the NetherlandsEllis Immerzeel-Brand, CSTM, University of Twente, Netherlands25. Co-regulation performance factors: lessons from theory and from practice in environmental agreementsManuel M. Cabugueira, Universidade Portucalense, Portugal26. The EIA public enquiry procedure as a model for public participation in environmental agreementsPatricia Bailey, European University Institute, Italy27. Monitoring environmental agreements: a multi-level conformity approach. Sustainable water management in the Twente regionJohan Woltjer, CSTM, University of Twente, Netherlands28. Monitoring mechanisms for efficient environmental agreementsPatrick ten Brink, IEEP, and Marina Morere, Independent Expert29. Voluntary environmental agreements between private and public lawBent Ole Gram Mortensen, University of Southern Denmark30. The optimal policy mix: matching ends and means in environmental policy-makingR. Yachnin, N. Gagnon, B. Guthrie and A. Howatson, The Conference Board of CanadaEpiloguePatrick ten Brink