War  book cover
1st Edition


Edited By

Alex Bellamy

ISBN 9780415433198
Published November 24, 2008 by Routledge
1544 Pages

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Book Description

Contrary to the optimistic predictions at the turn of the last century about ‘the demise of major war’, the War on Terror, major civil wars in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere, and the continuing conflict in the Middle East suggest that the study of warfare has never been so urgent. War stubbornly remains the ulimate arbiter of international disputes and continues to be a prominent feature of contemporary life: over one hundred states currently have forces overseas in one form of operation or another, and the United States, Britain, and France collectively have over 200,000 soldiers deployed in Iraq, Afghanistan, Lebanon, Cote d’Ivoire, Bosnia, Kosovo, Chad, Burundi, Sierra Leone, and Haiti. (In 2006 alone, the UN Security Council passed nearly fifty resolutions relating to armed conflicts around the world.)

But those interested in understanding why, how, and with what effect wars are fought are confronted by a bewildering range of theories, narratives, and cases, and a burgeoning amount of scholarly research. The sheer scale and diversity of war scholarship makes this new Routledge Major Work especially timely and welcome. It answers the need for a wide-ranging collection to make sense of the great variety of perspectives and approaches from which social scientists and other thinkers have understood, and continue to understand, war.

The collection is organized into four volumes. Volume I (‘Nature of War’) explores the nature of war and addresses fundamental questions such as: what is war? And, what marks it out from other forms of violence? Volume I also contains material about the different types of war, the incidence of war, the causes of war, and how wars end.

Volume II (‘History of War’) collects material on the historical development of war in different eras. The selected materials have been carefully chosen from across history to shed light on a common set of issues and to permit comparison across different eras. Volume III (‘Strategies of War’) focuses specifically on military strategy. The material collected here includes the main ideas of the most important strategic thinkers in history, together with learned commentaries on them. Key research on contemporary and future strategy is also included.

Finally, Volume IV (‘Ethics and Laws of War’) brings together the best and most influential scholarship in four sections: ‘Contending Ethical Traditions’, ‘Recourse to Force’, ‘Conduct of War’, and ‘Justice after War’.

With a full index, together with introductory material, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, War is an essential work of reference. It is destined to be valued by scholars, students, and practitioners of war and defence studies—as well as those working in allied disciplines such as security studies, international relations, politics, international law, and history—as a vital research resource.

Table of Contents

Volume I: Nature of War

1. What is War?

War as Politics

1. Carl von Clausewitz, ‘What is War?’, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton University Press, 1976), pp. 75–89.

War as Strategic Puzzle

2. Colin S. Gray, ‘What is War? A View from Strategic Studies’, Strategy and History: Essays on Theory and Practice (Routledge, 2006), pp. 185–9.

War as Legal Process

3. Quincy Wright, ‘When Does War Exist?’, American Journal of International Law, 26(2), 1932, 362–8.

War as Economic Practice

4. David Keen, ‘War and Peace: What’s the Difference?’, International Peacekeeping, 7(4), 2000, 1–22.

War as General Condition

5. G. W. F. Hegel, Philosophy of Right, trans. T. M. Knox (Clarendon Press, 1952), pp. 208–19.

2. Types of War

On Typologies of War

6. John A. Vasquez, ‘Capability, Types of War, Peace’, The Western Political Quarterly, 39(2), 1986, 313–27.

Total War

7. Hew Strachan, ‘Essay and Reflection: On Total War and Modern War’, International History Review, 22(2), 2000, 341–70.

Limited War

8. Stephen Peter Rosen, ‘Vietnam and the American Theory of Limited War’, International Security, 7(2), 1982, 83–113.

Guerrilla War

9. Mao Tse-Tung, ‘What is Guerrilla Warfare’, Guerrilla Warfare (Cassell, 1961), pp. 31–7.

‘New’ War

10. Stathis N. Kalyvas, ‘"New" and "Old" Civil Wars: A Valid Distinction?’, World Politics, 54, 99–118.

3. Incidence of War

Prior to 1945

11. Frank H. Denton and Warren Phillips, ‘Some Patterns in the History of Violence’, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 12(2), 1968, 182–95.


12. Human Security Centre, ‘The Changing Face of Global Violence’, Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 22–39, 55–7.

4. Causes of War

Human Biology

13. Doyne Dawson, ‘The Origins of War: Biological and Anthropological Theories’, History and Theory, 35(1), 1996, 1–28.


14. Michael Howard, ‘The Causes of Wars’, The Causes of War and Other Essays (Harvard University Press, 1983), pp. 7–22.

Structure of the International System

15. Kenneth N. Waltz, ‘The Third Image: International Conflict and International Anarchy’, Man, the State and War (Columbia University Press, 2001), 159–86.


16. Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, ‘On Economic Causes of Civil War’, Oxford Economics Papers, 50, 1998, 563–73.

5. How Wars End


17. Quincy Wright, ‘How Hostilities Have Ended: Peace Treaties and Alternatives’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 392, 1970, 51–61.

Interstate Wars

18. Steve Chan, ‘Explaining War Termination: A Boolean Analysis of Causes’, Journal of Peace Research, 40(1), 2003, 49–66.

Civil Wars

19. T. David Mason and Patrick J. Fett, ‘How Civil Wars End: A Rational Choice Approach’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 40(4), 1996, 546–68.

Volume II: History of War

6. Ancient War


20. W. W. How, ‘Arms, Tactics and Strategy in the Persian War’, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 43(2), 1923, 117–32.


21. Philip Sabin, ‘The Face of Roman Battle’, The Journal of Roman Studies, 90, 2000, 1–17.


22. Karl F. Friday, ‘Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan: Introduction’, Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan (Routledge, 2003), pp. 1–18.

7. Medieval War

Land Battles

23. Clifford J. Rogers, ‘The Military Revolutions of the Hundred Years’ War’, The Journal of Military History, 57(2), 1993, 169–71, 241–78.

Muslim Warfare

24. J. W. Jandora, ‘Developments in Islamic Warfare: The Early Conquests’, Studia Islamica, 64, 1986, 101–13.

8. Renaissance War

General Overview

25. Geoffrey Parker, ‘The "Military Revolution", 1560–1660: A Myth?’, The Journal of Modern History, 48(2), 1976, 195–214.

Military Innovation

26. J. R. Hale, ‘The Military Reformation: Techniques and Organization’, War and Society in Renaissance Europe 1450–1620 (Leicester University Press/Fontana, 1985), pp. 46–74, 256.

9. Modern War

General Overview

27. Charles Townshend (ed.), ‘Introduction: The Shape of Modern War’, The Oxford History of Modern War (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 3–19.

Military Innovation

28. Quincy Wright, ‘Inventions and War’, The Scientific Monthly, 53(6), 1941, 526–41.

10. Contemporary War

The Idea of ‘Postmodern’ War

29. Christopher Coker, ‘Post-Modern War’, RUSI Journal, 143(3), 1998, 7–14.

The ‘Revolution in Military Affairs’

30. Andrew F. Krepinevich, ‘Cavalry to Computer: The Pattern of Military Revolutions’, The National Interest, 37, 30–42.

Volume III: Strategies of War

11. Strategic Thinkers

Sun Tzu

31. Sun Tzu, The Art of Warfare, trans. Roger T. Ames, ed. Robert G. Henricks (Ballantine Books, 1993), pp. 103–5 (‘On Assessments’), 107–9 (‘On Waging Battle’), 111–13 (‘Planning the Attack’), 115–16 (‘Strategic Positions’), 119–21 (‘Strategic Advantage’), 123–7 (‘Weak Points and Strong Points’).

32. Michael Handel, ‘Comparing Sun Tzu and Clausewitz’, Masters of War: Classical Strategic Thought (Frank Cass, 1996), pp. 17–30.


33. Baron Antoine Henri de Jomini, The Art of War (Greenhill Books, 1992), pp. 38–51 (‘Military Policy’), 72–92 (‘Strategy’).

34. Hew Strachan, ‘Jomini and the Napoleonic Tradition’ in European Armies and the Conduct of War (London: Allen & Unwin, 1983), pp. 60–75.


35. Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton University Press, 1976), pp. 177–86, 190–7, 204–9, 213.

36. Colin S. Gray, ‘The Strategist’s Toolkit: The Legacy of Clausewitz’, Modern Strategy (Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 75–112

Liddell Hart

37. Basil Liddell Hart, ‘The Theory of Strategy’ and ‘The Concentrated Essence of Strategy and Tactics’, Strategy (London: Meridian, 1991), pp. 319–33, 334–7.

38. Martin van Creveld, The Art of War: War and Military Thought (Sterling, 2000), pp. 174–80.


39. Thomas C. Schelling, ‘Bargaining, Communication, and Limited War’, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1(1), 1957, 19–36.

Mao Tse-Tung

40. Mao Tse-Tung, ‘Tactics’ and ‘The Aim of War’, Basic Tactics, trans. and ed. Stuart R. Schram (Pall Mall Press, 1966), pp. 55–66, 66–8.

41. Mao Tse-Tung, ‘Strategy, Tactics and Logistics in Revolutionary War’, in On Guerrilla Warfare, ed. Samuel B. Griffith (Praeger, 1961), pp. 20–6.

42. Mao Tse-tung, ‘Principles of Operation Summarized’, in M. Rejai (ed.), Mao Tse-tung on Revolution and War (Doubleday Anchor Books, 1970), pp. 285–6.

43. Edward L. Katzenbach Jr and Gene Z. Hanrahan, ‘The Revolutionary Strategy of Mao Tse-Tung’, Political Science Quarterly, 70(3), 1955, 321–40.

12. War on Land

Land Warfare

44. H. P. Wilmott, Strategy and Tactics of Land Warfare (Chartwell Books, 1979), pp. 2–9.

45. Michael Evans, The Continental School of Strategy: The Past, Present and Future of Land Power (Land Warfare Studies Centre, Study Paper No. 305, June 2004), pp. 34–63.

Urban Warfare

46. A. Hills, ‘Hearts and Minds or Search and Destroy? Controlling Civilians in Urban Operations’, Small Wars and Insurgencies, 13(1), 2002, 1–24.

47. Timothy L. Thomas, ‘The Battle of Grozny: Deadly Classroom for Urban Combat’, Parameters, 29(2), 1999, 87–102.

13. War in the Air

Theories of Air Warfare

48. Giulio Douhet, The Command of the Air, trans. Dino Ferrari (Washington DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998), pp. 49–61.

49. William Mitchell, ‘The Aeronautical Era’, Winged Defence: The Development and Possibilities of Modern Air Power—Economic and Military (Dover, 2006 [1925]), pp. 3–26.

50. John Warden III, Air Campaign: Planning for Combat (National Defense University Press, 1988), pp. 1–20, 141–3.

Air Warfare in Recent Practice

51. Daniel L. Byman and Matthew C. Waxman, ‘Kosovo and the Great Airpower Debate’, International Security, 24(4) 2000, 5–38.

War in Space

52. Colin S. Gray, ‘The Influence of Space Power Upon History’, Comparative Strategy, 15(4), 1996, 293–308.

14. War at Sea

Theories of Maritime Warfare

53. Alfred Thayer Mahan, ‘Elements of Seapower’, Mahan on Naval Warfare: Selections from the Writings of Rear Admiral Alfred T. Mahan (Dover, 1999), pp. 16–48.

54. Julian S. Corbett, ‘Theory of the Object: Command of the Sea’, Some Principles of Maritime Strategy (Longmans, Green and Co., 1911), pp. 87–104.

Practice of Maritime Warfare

55. Joseph F. Callo, ‘Lasting Lessons of Trafalgar’, Naval History, 19(5), 2005, 16–22.

Amphibious Warfare

56. T. A Gibson, ‘Gallipoli, 1915’, in Merrill L. Bartlett (ed.), Assault from the Sea: Essays on the History of Amphibious Warfare (US Naval Institute Press, 1983), pp. 142–53.

57. Hanson W. Baldwin, ‘Amphibious Aspects of the Normandy Invasion’, in Merrill L. Bartlett (ed.), Assault from the Sea: Essays on the History of Amphibious Warfare (US Naval Institute Press, 1983), pp. 320–5.

15. Nuclear Warfare

Theories of Nuclear Warfare

58. Robert Jervis, ‘Deterrence Theory Revisited’, World Politics, 31(2), 1979, 289–324.

59. Lawrence Freedman, ‘Does Deterrence Have a Future’, Arms Control Today, 30(8), 2000, 3–8.

Nuclear Practice

60. Josiane Gabel, ‘The Role of US Nuclear Weapons after September 11’, The Washington Quarterly, 28(1), 2005/5, 181–95.

61. S. Paul Kapur, ‘India and Pakistan’s Unstable Peace: Why Nuclear South Asia is Not Like Cold War Europe’, International Security, 30(2), 2005, 127–52.

16. The Transformation of Warfare

Theories of RMA/Defence Transformation Warfare

62. Harlan Ullman, ‘Slogan or Strategy? Shock and Awe Reassessed’, The National Interest, Summer 2006, 43–9.

63. Donald H. Rumsfeld, ‘Transforming the Military’, Foreign Affairs, 81(3), 2002, 20–32.

64. Max Boot, ‘The Struggle to Transform the Military’, Foreign Affairs, 84(2), 2005, 103–18.

The Asymmetric Response

65. Kimbra L. Fishel, ‘Challenging the Hegemon: Al-Qaeda’s Elevation of Asymmetric Insurgent Warfare Onto the Global Arena’, in Robert Bunker (ed.), Networks, Terrorism and Global Insurgency (Routledge, 2005), pp. 115–28.

Volume IV: Ethics and Laws of War

17. Contending Ethical Traditions


66. George F. Kennan, ‘Morality and Foreign Policy’, Foreign Affairs, 64(2), 205–18.

Just War

67. James Turner Johnson, ‘Historical Tradition and Moral Judgment: The Case of Just War Tradition’, The Journal of Religion, 64(3), 299–317.


68. Paul L. Heck, ‘Jihad Revisited’, Journal of Religious Ethics, 32(1), 2004, 95–128.


69. Norman Solomon, ‘Judaism and the Ethics of War’, International Review of the Red Cross, 87(858), 2005, 295–309.


70. Hans Bakker, ‘Ayodhya: A Hindu Jerusalem: An Investigation of “Holy War” as a Religious Idea in the Light of Communal Unrest in India’, Numen, 38(1), 1991, 80–109.


71. Cho-yun Hsu, ‘Applying Confucian Ethics to International Relations’, Ethics and International Affairs, 5(1), 1991, 15–31.


72. G. Cameron Hurst III, ‘Death, Honor and Loyalty: The Bushido Ideal’, Philosophy East and West, 40(4), 1990, 511–27.


73. John Harris, ‘The Marxist Conception of Violence, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 3(2), 1974, 192–220.

18. Recourse to Force

Moral Principles

74. James T. Johnson, ‘Ideology and the Jus Ad Bellum: Justice in the Initiation of War’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 41(2), 1973, 212–28.


75. W. Michael Reisman, ‘Criteria for the Lawful Use of Force in International Law’, Yale Journal of International Law, 10(2), 1985, 279–85.

Key Issues I: Self-Defence and Pre-Emption

76. Abraham D. Sofaer, ‘On the Necessity of Pre-emption’, European Journal of International Law, 14(2), 2003, 209–26.

Key Issues II: Humanitarian Intervention

77. Terry Nardin, ‘The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention’, Ethics and International Affairs, 16(2), 2002, 57–70.

19. Conduct of War

Moral and Legal Principles

78. Brian Orend, ‘Just and Lawful Conduct in War: Reflections on Michael Walzer’, Law and Philosophy, 20(1), 2001, 1–30.

Non-Combatant Immunity

79. James Turner Johnson, ‘Maintaining the Protection of Non-Combatants’, Journal of Peace Research, 37(4), 2000, 421–48.

Key Issues I: Supreme Emergencies

80. Michael Walzer, ‘Supreme Emergencies’, Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations (Basic Books, 1977), pp. 49–50, 251–68.

Key Issues II: Civilian Protection

81. Nicholas J. Wheeler, ‘Dying for Enduring Freedom: Accepting Responsibility for Civilian Casualties in the War Against Terrorism’, International Relations, 16(2), 2002, 205–25.

20. Justice after War

82. Gary J. Bass, ‘Jus Post Bellum’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 32(4), 2004, 384–412.

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