Waste Sites as Biological Reactors: Characterization and Modeling, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Waste Sites as Biological Reactors

Characterization and Modeling, 1st Edition

By Percival A. Miller, Nicholas L. Clesceri

CRC Press

400 pages | 17 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2002-12-26
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Description

Where and how wastes disappear, and how the environment is affected by the process, are issues that affect cities and towns around the world. Recent investigations have convincingly shown that waste poses water, air, and public health dangers that necessitate highly efficient engineered controls. An inexpensive, effective, method for assessing impacts and risks of a system and devising management plans is to develop mathematical and quantitative models that are sufficiently representative to allow examination of physical systems as units subject to environmental factors.

Providing detailed coverage of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of solid waste sites, Waste Sites as Biological Reactors: Characterization and Modeling describes the parameters required to understand, model, and assess the capacity of a waste disposal site as an open biodegradation system. The authors present original analyses of waste and reactor kinetics, decomposition, temperature, and moisture effects, and heat properties. They discuss landfill gas and leachate chemicals generation with detailed composition and property data. Tables and figures provide easy access to the information, and the authors explore various site management options.

The simplicity, ugliness, and beauty of a waste disposal site confronts us with a microcosm of nature at its most basic, yet functioning in its most elegant form. Where and how wastes disappear and how the environment is affected are issues of concern to cities and towns around the world. Waste Sites as Biological Reactors: Characterization and Modeling deconstructs the mystery of the waste site in such a way that it can be modeled using familiar tools and the information obtained can then be applied to site remediation.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

The Nature and Control of Waste Disposal Sites

The Bioreactor Concept

Reactor Configurations of Relevance to Practical Description of a Waste Site

The Waste Site as a Biological Reactor

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE SITES

Waste Site Bioreactor Concepts

Porosity of a Waste Site

Density and Other Properties of Mixed Soil and Waste Materials

Applicability of Conductivity and Permeability Relations for Packed Beds

Permeability k of a Mixed Porous Media

Permeability (k) Correction for Packed Bed Flow

Correction of Packed Column Pressure Drop for Wall Effects

Corrections for Pressure Drop Relations for Fluid Flow through a Waste Site

Waste Site Particle Properties: Size and Shape

References

CHARACTERIZATION OF DISPOSED WASTES: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, AND BIODEGRADATION FACTORS

Determination of Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Wastes

MSW Composition vs. Landfill Layer Depth or Age: Data for Initialization

Individual Wastes and Characteristics

Characteristics of Paper Wastes

Characteristics of Food Wastes

Characteristics of Yard Wastes

Characteristics of Plastics Wastes

Plastics Deterioration in Landfills

Landfill Leachate and Landfill Gas Characteristics

WASTE SITE ECOLOGY

Influence of the Waste Site Environment on Types of Organisms Present

Species Competition for Food at a Waste Site

The Range of Organisms at Waste Sites

Organisms Found in Compost Piles

Trophic Relations and Environmental Factors Determining Organisms at Waste Sites

Influence of Site Environmental factors on Organism Types

The Waste Site as an Environment for Organisms

Definition of Impact of Organisms at Disposed Waste Site

Organisms Reported at Landfills, Dumps, and Other Waste Sites: Considerations

Waste Site Scavengers

Waste Removal Impact of Animals at Disposal Sites

Waste Removal by Insects and Soil Mesofauna

References

MOISTURE AND HEAT FLOWS

Moisture as a Control of Processes in the Waste Site

Water Film Thickness on Solid Materials under Sorption Regime

Method 1 for Liquid Film Thickness Determination

Method 2 for Moisture Film Thickness

Water Potential vs. Water Activity of Soils and Solid Porous Materials

The Issue of Mixed Water Saturation or Varied Water Potential in Wastes

Maximum Moisture Sorption by a Material

Effect of Waste Moisture Content on Soil Organisms

Water Availability to Organisms

Hydraulic Conductivity

Capillary Effects in Waste Sites

Waste Site Moisture Retention Characteristics

Full Range Moisture Capillarity

Middle Moisture Content Range

Moist to Saturation of Wet Moisture Content Section of Curve

Moisture Retention Curve in the Dry Range for Landfilled Waste

Boundary Conditions

Estimation of Constants Full-Range (Wet to Dry)

Reliability of Estimated Values

Relevance of the Lower Curve Junction to Bioreactor Simulation

Development of Moisture Capillarity-Hydraulic

Summary of Extended Range Conductivity Relationships

Moisture Inflow and Moisture Balance

Locations Used for Landfill Cover Moisture Impact Simulations

Microorganism Rate vs. Water Content and Water Activity

Limitations of Applying Water Potential Concepts

Discussion

References

HEAT GENERATION AND TRANSPORT

Introduction

The Heat Model

Definition of Waste Site System Heat Capacity

Heat Content of System: Landfill Gas or Air as Saturating Fluid

The Volumetric Heat Generation Term q'''

Heat Impact of Moisture Uptake and Flows

Evaporation Enhancement Due to Thermal Gradient in Pore Structure

Temperature vs. Water Vapor Diffusion, Latent Heat and Density Variation

Definitions of Waste Site System Tortuosity

Energy Balance at Atmospheric Boundary of Bioractor

Effect of Surface Albedo

Incoming Longwave Radiation

Outgoing Longwave Radiation

Latent Heat Flow of a Bioreactor System

Temperature Variation with Depth

Sensible Heat Flow from the Bioreactor System

Development of the Heat Generation Model

Solution to the Heat Equation

Temperature at the Waste Site Surface

Variables of the Heat Generation Model

Landfill Thermal Conductivity Km

Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity Values

Estimating the Mean Thermal Conductivity of Mixed Waste Materials

References

THE KINETICS OF DECOMPOSITION OF WASTES

Introduction

Anaerobic and Aerobic Decomposition Patterns

Anaerobic Decomposition

The Kinetics of Aerobic Decomposition at a Waste Site

Aerobic Hydrolysis Product Generation, Incorporation and Use

Diffusivity Coefficients for Liquid and Gas Solutes

A Stoichiometric Approach to Decomposition

Values of Decompositiom Kinetic Constants

References

DECOMPOSITION ISSUES

Introduction

Information from Previous Waste Site Studies

Landfill Soils Sampling Studies

Landfill Soil Microorganism Studies

Mass Transfer Considerations

Application of Transport Model to Gas Flux

Gas-Liquid Transfers

Mass Flux

Removal of Chemical in Liquid Film

Application of Transport Model to Gas Chemicals Flux

Mass Transfer Rate at Interface

Biodegradation Rates for Landfill Organic Chemicals

Partitioning Between Gas and Liquid

Waste Site Settlement

References

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS

Introduction

Information in Database for MSW Fractions as Substrate

Range of Anaerobic and Hydrolysis Rates

Chemical Characterization of Waste Fractions

Moisture Sorption Factors for Municipal Waste Materials

Moisture Response of Materials to the Environment

Testing Approach

Other Properties Estimated for the Database

Constants for Aerobic and Anaerobic Decomposition

Soil Moisture Content

Moisture Inflow Effect of Cover

Temperature as a Decomposition Factor

Biofiltration Effect

Settlement Effect

Discussion

Moisture Input

Conclusions

Appendix 1: Waste-Properties

Appendix 2: Landfill Gas Properties

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC009010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical