Wastewater Stabilization Ponds  book cover
1st Edition

Wastewater Stabilization Ponds

ISBN 9781466593183
Published April 9, 2014 by CRC Press
344 Pages 35 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Ponds (lagoons) have been used for centuries with great success in the treatment of wastewater. Ponds created for treatment, known as stabilization ponds, model the physical and biochemical interactions that occur in natural ponds. Easy to build and manage, stabilization ponds can accommodate large fluctuations in flow, and provide results that are comparable to conventional systems at a much lower cost. Wastewater Stabilization Ponds examines the use of this natural and highly effective process. The text is centered on wastewater pond management processes and operation procedures that provide passive treatment with a minimum of energy-driven mechanical elements.

It highlights the environmental principles, practices, engineering, and mathematics involved in the design and operation of conventional wastewater stabilization ponds. It also explores the major processes, procedures, and design methods relevant to wastewater treatment ponds. This includes the basic processes, in-pond design evolution and enhancements, oxygen addition, and modifications that require energy, nutrient removal, as well as effluent total suspended solids removal. Emphasizing the design, construction, and operation of wastewater ponds, the book serves as a valuable resource for anyone seeking information on pond construction and operation, knowledge of pond operation, and assistance in certification exam preparation and study.

  • Presents a design of wastewater stabilization ponds
  • Includes a complete description of pond process elements
  • Provides descriptions of pond insect macroinvertebrates
  • Incorporates pond morphometry calculations
  • Contains extensive pond-related math problems

Sustainability and energy conservation are underlying themes throughout the text and the authors offer valuable information on potential renewable energy sources.

Table of Contents


Setting The Stage

Still Waters

on Ponds

References and Recommended Reading

Pond Process Elements


Microbiology: What is it?

Wastewater Microorganisms

Key Terms




Pond Macroinvertebrates

References and Recommended Reading

Biochemistry in a Wastewater Stabilization Pond



Nitrogen Cycle

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

pH and Alkalinity

Physical Factors

Pond Nutritional Requirements

References and Recommended Reading

Pond Math Parameters


Metric System, Conversion Factors and SI Units

Conversion Factors

General Treatment Pond Parameters

Treatment Pond Process Control Calculations

Aerated Ponds

Still Water System Calculations

Wastewater Stabilization Pond Design Example Problems

References and Recommended Reading

Design of Wastewater Stabilization Ponds


Anaerobic Ponds

Facultative Ponds

Aerated Pond Systems

References and Recommended Reading

Pond Construction


Dike Construction

Pond Sealing

Pond Hydraulics

Pond Recirculation and Configuration

References and Recommended Reading

Advanced Pond Design


Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems® (AIWPS®)

References and Recommended Reading

Nutrient Removal


Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Ponds

Facultative Ponds

Aerobic Ponds

Commercial Products

Removal of Phosphorus

References and Recommended Reading

Improving Pond Effluent


Solids Removal Methods

Operational Modifications and Additions

Control of Algae and Design of Settling Basins

Comparison of Various Design Procedures

Operational Modifications to Facultative Ponds

Performance Comparison with Other Removal Methods

References and Recommended Reading

Operation, Maintenance & Troubleshooting


Control Testing Information

Operation and Maintenance for Ponds

Pond Safety


References and Recommended Reading



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Frank R. Spellman, PhD, is a retired U.S. Navy officer with 26 years of active duty, a retired environmental safety and health manager for a large wastewater sanitation district in Virginia, and a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. The author/co-author of 92 books, Dr. Spellman consults on environmental matters with the U.S. Department of Justice and various law firms and environmental entities throughout the globe. Spellman holds a BA in public administration, a BS in business management, and an MBA and MS/PhD in environmental engineering.

Joanne E. Drinan is a retired U.S. Navy chief petty officer with 20 years of active duty. She worked for 13 years as an administrative coordinator for a large wastewater treatment sanitation district in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Currently, Drinan works for a nonprofit organization in Oneonta, New York. She is the author/co-author of more than 12 environmental science books. She holds a BS in business administration from St. Leo University.