1st Edition

Water Chemistry Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource

By Stanley E. Manahan Copyright 2011
    416 Pages 100 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    416 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Carefully crafted to provide a comprehensive overview of the chemistry of water in the environment, Water Chemistry: Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource examines water issues within the broad framework of sustainability, an issue of increasing importance as the demands of Earth’s human population threaten to overwhelm the planet’s carrying capacity. Renowned environmental author Stanley Manahan provides more than just basic coverage of the chemistry of water. He relates the science and technology of this amazing substance to areas essential to sustainability science, including environmental and green chemistry, industrial ecology, and green (sustainable) science and technology. The inclusion of a separate chapter that comprehensively covers energy, including renewable and emerging sources, sets this book a part.

    Manahan explains how the hydrosphere relates to the geosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and anthrosphere. His approach views Planet Earth as consisting of these five mutually interacting spheres. He covers biogeochemical cycles and the essential role of water in these basic cycles of materials. He also defines environmental chemistry and green chemistry, emphasizing water’s role in the practice of each. Manahan highlights the role of the anthrosphere, that part of the environment constructed and operated by humans. He underscores its overwhelming influence on the environment and its pervasive effects on the hydrosphere. He also covers the essential role that water plays in the sustainable operation of the anthrosphere and how it can be maintained in a manner that will enable it to operate in harmony with the environment for generations to come.

    Written at an intermediate level, this is an appropriate text for the study of current affairs in environmental chemistry. It provides a review and grounding in basic and organic chemistry for those students who need it and also fills a niche for an aquatic chemistry book that relates the hydrosphere to the four other environmental spheres.

    Water and the Five Spheres of the Environment
    The Hydrosphere
    The Geosphere and the Hydrosphere
    The Atmosphere and the Hydrosphere
    The Biosphere and the Hydrosphere
    The Anthrosphere and the Hydrosphere
    Water and Biogeochemical Cycles
    Water and Environmental Chemistry
    Water and Green Chemistry
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Properties of Water and the Hydrosphere
    The Fantastic Water Molecule
    Water as an Essential Resource
    The Hydrological Cycle
    Standing Bodies of Water
    Flowing Water
    Water Utilization
    Impoundment and Transfer of Water
    Water: A Very Useful Green Substance
    Aquatic Life
    Global Warming and Water
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Fundamentals of Aquatic Chemistry
    Introduction to Aquatic Chemistry
    Gases in Water
    Water Acidity and Carbon Dioxide in Water
    Calcium and Other Metals in Water
    Complexation and Chelation
    Bonding and Structure of Metal Complexes
    Calculations of Species Concentrations
    Complexation by Deprotonated Ligands
    Complexation by Protonated Ligands
    Solubilization of Lead Ion from Solids by NTA
    Polyphosphates and Phosphonates in Water
    Complexation by Humic Substances
    Complexation and Redox Processes
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Oxidation–Reduction in Aquatic Chemistry
    The Significance of Oxidation–Reduction
    Electron and Redox Reactions
    Electron Activity and pE
    The Nernst Equation
    Reaction Tendency: Whole Reaction from Half-Reactions
    The Nernst Equation and Chemical Equilibrium.
    The Relationship of pE to Free Energy
    Reactions in Terms of One Electron-Mole
    The Limits of pE in Water
    pE Values in Natural Water Systems
    pE–pH Diagrams
    Humic Substances as Natural Reductants
    Photochemical Processes in Oxidation–Reduction
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Phase Interactions in Aquatic Chemistry
    Chemical Interactions Involving Solids, Gases, and Water
    Importance and Formation of Sediments
    Colloidal Particles in Water
    Colloidal Properties of Clays
    Aggregation of Particles
    Surface Sorption by Solids
    Solute Exchange with Bottom Sediments
    Interstitial Water
    Phase Interactions in Chemical Fate and Transport
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Aquatic Microbial Biochemistry
    Aquatic Biochemical Processes
    The Prokaryotic Bacterial Cell
    Kinetics of Bacterial Growth
    Bacterial Metabolism
    Microbial Transformations of Carbon
    Biodegradation of Organic Matter
    Microbial Transformations of Nitrogen
    Microbial Transformations of Phosphorus and Sulfur
    Microbial Transformations of Halogens and Organohalides
    Microbial Transformations of Metals and Metalloids
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Water Pollution
    Nature and Types of Water Pollutants
    Elemental Pollutants
    Heavy Metals
    Organically Bound Metals and Metalloids
    Inorganic Species
    Algal Nutrients and Eutrophication
    Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity
    Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants
    Organic Pollutants
    Pesticides in Water
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    Emerging Water Pollutants, Pharmaceuticals, and Household Wastes
    Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Water Treatment
    Water Treatment and Water Use
    Municipal Water Treatment
    Treatment of Water for Industrial Use
    Sewage Treatment
    Industrial Wastewater Treatment
    Removal of Solids
    Removal of Calcium and other Metals
    Removal of Dissolved Organics
    Removal of Dissolved Inorganics
    Water Disinfection
    Natural Water Purification Processes
    Green Water
    Water Conservation
    Protecting Water Supplies from Attack
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater
    General Aspects of Environmental Chemical Analysis
    Classical Methods
    Spectrophotometric Methods
    Electrochemical Methods of Analysis
    Mass Spectrometry
    Analysis of Water
    Automated Water Analyses
    Emerging Contaminants in Water Analysis
    Chiral Contaminants
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Sustainable Energy: The Key to Everything
    The Energy Challenge
    Nature of Energy
    Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere
    Energy Devices and Conversions
    Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency
    Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources
    Petroleum and Natural Gas
    Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization
    Industrial Ecology for Energy and Chemicals
    Nuclear Energy
    Geothermal Energy
    The Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source
    Energy from Moving Air and Moving Water
    Biomass Energy
    Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy
    Combined Power Cycles
    A System of Industrial Ecology for Methane Production
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Fundamentals of Chemistry
    The Science of Matter
    Chemical Bonding
    Chemical Reactions and Equations
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems

    Organic Chemistry
    Organic Chemistry
    Organic Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds
    Synthetic Polymers
    Supplementary References
    Questions and Problems



    Stanley E. Manahan

    "…it is a thorough review, and by virtue of its simple but clear diagrams and plain English makes the text easy to follow and understand. There is continuity between chapters, thus allowing a smooth flow between the various subjects whilst adding to its easy-reading nature."
    Chromatographia, March 2011,73:1039