This book provides a concise synthesis of how toxic chemical pollutants affect physiological processes in teleost fish. This Second Edition of the well-received Water Pollution and Fish Physiology has been completely updated, and chapters have been added on immunology and acid toxicity. The emphasis, as in the first edition, is on understanding mechanisms of sublethal effects on fish and their responses to these environmental stressors.
The first chapter covers the basic principles involved in understanding how fish respond, in general, to environmental alterations. Each subsequent chapter is devoted to a particular organ system or physiological function and begins with a short overview of normal physiology of that system/function. This is followed by a review of how various toxic chemicals may alter normal conditions in fish. Chapters covering environmental hypoxia, behavior, cellular enzymes, and acid toxicity are also included. The book closes with a discussion on the practical application of physiological and biochemical measurements of fish in water pollution control in research and regulatory settings.
Table of Contents
Some Introductory Concepts: Types of Water Pollution. The Relationship Between Aquatic Toxicology and Fish Physiology. Levels of Biological Organization. Importance of Dose and Duration of Exposure. Stress. Toxic Mode of Action.
Environmental Hypoxia: Minimum Levels of Oxygen Required for Fish Life. Interaction of Hypoxia and Toxicity of Pollutant Chemicals. Gill vs. Cutaneous Respiration. Adjustments in Ventilation. Adjustments by the Gills to Hypoxia. Transport of Oxygen by the Blood. Cardiovascular Changes During Hypoxia. Respiratory Regulation and Conformity. Anaerobic Metabolism. Swimming Speed. Behavior. Blood and Urine. Histopathology. Acclimation to Hypoxia.
Respiratory and Cardiovascular Responses: Overview of Normal Respiratory Physiology. Histopathology of Gill Lamellae Exposed to Pollutants. Ventilation Changes in Response to Pollutants. Physiological Mechanisms of Changes in Ventilation. Circulatory Physiology. Cardiac Responses to Pollutants.
Hematology: Fish Blood Cells and their Measurement. Chemicals that Cause Anemia. Chemicals Causing an Increase in Hematological Variables.
Uptake, Accumulation, Biotransformation, and Excretion of Xenobiotics: Uptake from the Environment. Transport Within the Fish of Metals and Organics. Accumulation of Metals in Different Organs. Regulation of Metal Concentration. Glutathione and Metal Detoxification. Involvement of Metallothionein in Metal Accumulation and Acclimation to Metals. Bioconcentration of Organic Pollutants. Biotransformation of Organic Contaminants. Excretion of Organic Contaminants.
Liver: Structure of Liver. Alterations of Liver/Somatic Index. Histopathological Effects of Pollutants. Major Functions of Liver. Effects of Pollutants on Liver Function. Ascorbic Acid and Pollutant Exposure.
Osmotic and Ionic Regulation: Effects of Pollutants on Osmotic and Ionic Regulation. Mucus. Chloride Cell Proliferation. Some Summary Comments Regarding Osmoregulatory and Electrolyte Alterati
Heath, Alan G.