Wax Deposition: Experimental Characterizations, Theoretical Modeling, and Field Practices covers the entire spectrum of knowledge on wax deposition. The book delivers a detailed description of the thermodynamic and transport theories for wax deposition modeling as well as a comprehensive review of laboratory testing for the establishment of appropriate field control strategies.
Offering valuable insight from academic research and the flow assurance industry, this balanced text:
- Discusses the background of wax deposition, including the cause of the phenomenon, the magnitude of the problem, and its impact on petroleum production
- Introduces laboratory techniques and theoretical models to measure and predict key parameters of wax precipitation, such as the wax appearance temperature and the wax precipitation curve
- Explains how to conduct and interpret laboratory experiments to benchmark different wax deposition models, to better understand wax deposition behaviors, and to predict wax deposit growth for the field
- Presents various models for wax deposition, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each and evaluating the differences between the assumptions used
- Provides numerous examples of how field management strategies for wax deposition can be established based on laboratory testing and modeling work
Wax Deposition: Experimental Characterizations, Theoretical Modeling, and Field aids flow assurance engineers in identifying the severity and controlling the problem of wax deposition. The book also shows students and researchers how fundamental principles of thermodynamics, heat, and mass transfer can be applied to solve a problem common to the petroleum industry.
Table of Contents
Background of Wax Deposition
Overview of Wax Testing, Modeling, and Management
Experimental Characterization of Wax Thermodynamic Properties
Determination of the Wax Appearance Temperature
Determination of the Wax Precipitation Curve
Experimental Techniques for the Characterization of Precipitated Wax
Thermodynamic Modeling of Wax Precipitation
Fundamental Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation
Step 1 in Thermodynamic Modeling: Construction of the Thermodynamic Equations
Step 2 in Thermodynamic Modeling: Simplification of Thermodynamic Equations
Coutinho’s Thermodynamic Model—A Theoretically Comprehensive Thermodynamic Model
Industrial Practice of Wax Thermodynamic Modeling
Extended Applications of Wax Thermodynamic Models
Wax Deposition Modeling
Wax Deposition Mechanisms
Molecular Diffusion as the Main Mechanism for Wax Deposition
Overview of Wax Deposition Modeling
Detailed Comparison of Different Wax Deposition Models
Introduction to Wax Deposition Experiments
Importance of Experimental Applications
Wax Deposition Flow Loop
Cold-Finger Wax Deposition Apparatus
Carrying Out Flow-Loop Wax Deposition Experiments
Applying Wax Deposition Models to Flow Loop Experiments
Uncertainties in Wax Deposition Modeling
Applying Wax Deposition Models with Deposit Thickness
Heat and Mass Transfer Analysis of the Wax Deposition Experiments
Applying Wax Deposition Models to Investigate Deposit Compositions
Applying Wax Deposition Models for Field Predictions
Example 1—Single-Phase Pipe Flow
Example 2—Gas/Oil Flow
Zhenyu Huang (Jason) earned his bachelor’s degree from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and his Ph.D from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Dr. Huang’s expertise includes production chemistry and multiphase flows. As a subject matter expert on wax-related issues, he has been involved with multiple major offshore developments that present wax deposition/gelation concerns. He is currently a senior flow assurance specialist at Assured Flow Solutions LLC, Sugar Land, Texas, USA, and serves as the vice president of the Upstream Engineering and Flow Assurance Section of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Sheng Zheng (Mark) graduated summa cum laude from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA with a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering and minors in chemistry and mathematics. He is currently a doctoral candidate in Dr. Fogler’s research group, specializing in experimental characterizations and theoretical modeling for wax deposition research. He has multiple publications on compositional wax deposition modeling and wax transport in multiphase flow conditions. As flow assurance intern at Wood Group Kenny, Houston, Texas, USA, he carried out a joint-industrial project to assess industrial wax management and control strategies for 11 international oil companies.
H. Scott Fogler earned his bachelor’s degree from the University of Illinois and his master’s and Ph.D degrees from the University of Colorado. He is currently the Ame and Catherine Vennema professor of chemical engineering and the Arthur F. Thurnau professor at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Dr. Fogler and his students have published more than 200 research articles in areas such as wax deposition/gelation kinetics in subsea pipelines, asphaltene flocculation/deposition kinetics, scale deposition, and acidization of petroleum wells. In 1996, Dr. Fogler was a recipient of the Warren K. Lewis award from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AlChE). He is also a recipient of 11 named lectureships, the author of a textbook titled Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, and the past president of the AlChE.
"… covers the entire spectrum of knowledge on wax deposition. It not only introduces the background, basic concepts, experiments, modeling, and field operations of wax deposition, but also presents the latest research achievements and trends in this field. … Highly valuable for researchers and engineers."
—Jinjun Zhang, China University of Petroleum - Beijing
"A useful methodological approach for tackling industrial wax deposition problems is clearly conveyed in this work, encompassing fundamental theory, scale-up, as well as practical application. … An unassuming pedagogical style, supported by uncluttered illustrations, allows the reader to quickly absorb and master the smorgasbord of non-trivial intricacies which accompany wax deposition analysis."
—Kristofer Gunnar Paso, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim
"… covers nearly every aspect of wax deposition-related research, from fluid analysis and deposition measurements to thermodynamic modeling, kinetic deposition modeling, and field application. Engineers and researchers in the area of flow assurance will benefit a lot from this book. This could also inspire students, researchers in the field of transport phenomena, and thermodynamics and process engineers to further explore the remaining challenges."
—Shuxin Hou, Statoil, Stavanger, Norway
"At last, a powerful tool for the flow assurance engineer. … All we need to know on wax deposition is gathered in a sole work."
—Thierry Palermo, Total S.A., Paris, France