1st Edition

Why Neo-Militant Democracies Endure The Inner Six in Comparative Perspective

Edited By Joanna Rak Copyright 2024

    This book examines how contemporary militant democracies persist in the face of authoritarian abuses occurring during times of crisis. Focusing on founding members of the European Union, it explores how these democracies implemented anti-democratic measures without compromising their political rights and civil liberty ratings.

    By expanding the conceptual framework and theory of neo- and quasi-militant democracies through case studies and comparative analysis, the volume offers new insights into factors contributing to democratic endurance. Respective authors shift scholarly attention toward the epistemic construction of anti-democratic restrictions, arguing that epistemic fairness in defining anti-democratic threats plays a crucial role in preventing the erosion of democracy and, in doing so, enriches our understanding of legal definitions of enemies of democracy and their impact on the stability of political regimes. Investigating restrictions that target old and contemporary threats enhances our understanding of how Inner Six democracies survive under attack from populists seeking to expand their ruling competencies after the 2008 economic crisis, the 2015 European refugee crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the Russo-Ukrainian War.

    This book is of key interest to scholars and students of European and Comparative Politics, Democratic Resilience and Backsliding, Legitimacy, Democracy and Dictatorship, Public Comparative Constitutional Law, Human Rights Law, Philosophy of Law, and Political Philosophy and Theory.

    Part I: Introduction

    1. Methodological and Theoretical Assumptions for Studying the Endurance of Neo-militant Democracies

    Joanna Rak

    2. Central and Eastern Europe from the Great Recession to Warfare Times: Labile Endurance of Quasi- and Neo-militant Democracies

    Joanna Rak, Maciej Skrzypek, and Roman Bäcker

    3. The Inner Six in a Historical Context: From Militant to Neo-militant Democracies

    Roman Bäcker

    Part II: Case Studies

    4. Ignore Threats or Believe in the Inviolability of Rules? Restrictions of the Freedom of Association, Registration, and Functioning of Political Parties

    Maciej Skrzypek

    5. Electoral Rights for All? Restrictions of Passive and Active Voting Rights

    Kamila Rezmer and Agnieszka Filipiak

    6. Dissent Within and Beyond the Boundaries of Legality: Restrictions of the Freedom of Assembly

    Karolina Owczarek

    7. Did Neo-Militant Democracy Deal with Changes in Media Systems Efficiently? Restrictions on Freedom of Speech and the Press

    Maciej Skrzypek

    8. Religion as a Political Tool for Dividing Societies: Restrictions of the Freedom of Religion

    Kamila Rezmer

    9. LGBTQI+ Erasure or Progress in Protecting Human Rights?  Restrictions on the Rights of LGBTQI+ People

    Agnieszka Filipiak

    10. Between Inclusive and Exclusive Policies: Restrictions on Naturalization and Migrants’ Rights

    Klaudia Gołębiowska and Marcin Łukaszewski

    11. Facing New Threats: Restrictions on Terrorism and Hybrid Interference

    Karolina Owczarek

    12. Avenues for Studies on Pandemic-ridden and Warfare Times Neo-militant Democracies

    Roman Bäcker and Maciej Skrzypek

    Part III: Conclusions

    13. The Endurance of Neo-militant Democracies in Comparative Perspective

    Joanna Rak


    Joanna Rak is Associate Professor of Political Sciences at Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.