Since the 1960s, wind tunnel testing has become a commonly used tool in the design of tall buildings. It was pioneered, in large part, during the design of the World Trade Center Towers in New York. Since those early days of wind engineering, wind tunnel testing techniques have developed in sophistication, but these techniques are not widely understood by the designers using the results. As a direct result, the CTBUH Wind Engineering Working Group was formed to develop a concise guide for the non-specialist.
The primary goal of this guide is to provide an overview of the wind tunnel testing process for design professionals. This knowledge allows readers to ask the correct questions of their wind engineering consultants throughout the design process. This is not an in-depth guide to the technical intricacies of wind tunnel testing, it focusses instead on the information the design community needs, including:
- a unique methodology for the presentation of wind tunnel results to allow straightforward comparison of results from different wind tunnel laboratories.
- advice on when a tall building is likely to be sufficiently sensitive to wind effects to benefit from a wind tunnel test
- background for assessing whether design codes and standards are applicable
- details of the types of tests that are commonly conducted
- descriptions of the fundamentals of wind climate and the interaction of wind and tall buildings
This unique book is an essential guide for all designers of tall buildings, and anyone else interested in the process of wind tunnel testing for tall buildings.
Table of Contents
About the CTBUH About the Authors Preface 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Basis of Design 1.2 Wind Climate 2.0 Nature of Wind Effects 2.1 Planetary Boundary Layer and Wind Turbulence 2.2 Mean and Fluctuating Loads 2.3 Along-wind, Crosswind, and Torsional Loading 2.4 Background and Resonant Loads 2.5 Serviceability Accelerations 2.6 Vortex Excitation 2.7 Aerodynamic Damping and Galloping 2.8 Cladding Loads 2.9 Reynolds Number Effects 3.0 Wind Tunnel Testing Methods 3.1 Simulation of the Natural Wind at Small Scale 3.2 Test Methods to Determine Wind Loads on the Structural System 3.3 Aeroelastic Model Testing 3.4 Test Methods to Determine Cladding Loads 3.5 Other Types of Wind Related Studies 4.0 Prediction of Load Effects for Strength Design and Serviceability 4.1 Structural Properties of the Building 4.2 Load Effects 4.3 Non-Directional Method 4.4 Sector Velocity Method 4.5 Extreme Load Effect Method 4.6 Upcrossing Methods 5.0 Format for Comparing Wind Tunnel Results 5.1 Types of Comparison 5.2 Wind Climate Models, Velocity Profiles, and Turbulence 5.3 Aerodynamic Data 5.4 Predicted Building Response Variations 5.5 Responses Versus Return Period 5.6 Quality Assurance 6.0 Use of Wind Tunnel Results 7.0 References Bibliography CTBUH Height Criteria 100 Tallest Buildings in the World CTBUH Organization and Members