1st Edition

Women and Gender in Science and Technology

Edited By Londa Schiebinger
    1726 Pages
    by Routledge

    The question of gender in science and technology is pursued by scholars from different disciplines and perspectives: historians study the lives of women scientists within the context of institutions that for centuries held women at arm’s length; sociologists uncover women’s access to the means of scientific production; biologists scrutinize how science has studied female and male bodies; cultural critics explore normative understandings of femininity and masculinity; philosophers and historians of science analyse how gender has influenced the content and methods of science and technology.

    Now, this new four-volume collection from Routledge enables users to make sense of the interlocking pieces of the gender, science, and technology puzzle: the history of women’s participation in science and engineering; the structure of research institutions; and the gendering of human knowledge. The volumes bring together important representative publications treating these issues from antiquity to the present, and across cultures.

    VOLUME I: Women in Science and Technology

    Part 1: Women Scientists in Social Context

    1. Mary Ellen Waithe, ‘Hypatia of Alexandria’, in A History of Women Philosophers (4 vols.), ed. Mary Ellen Waithe (Martinus Nihjoff, 1987), vol. 1, pp. 169–95.

    2. Londa Schiebinger, ‘Maria Winkelmann and the Berlin Academy: A Turning Point for Women in Science’, Isis, Journal of the History of Science Society, 1987, 78, 174–200.

    3. Paula Findlen, ‘Science as a Career in Enlightenment Italy: The Strategies of Laura Bassi’, Isis, Journal of the History of Science Society, 1983, 84, 441–69.

    4. John Fuegi and Jo Francis, ‘Lovelace & Babbage and the Creation of the 1843 "Notes"’, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Oct.–Dec. 2003, 16–26.

    5. Helena Pycior, ‘Pierre Curie and "His Eminent Collaborator Mme Curie": Complementary Partners’, in Creative Couples in the Sciences, eds. Helena Pycior, Nancy Slack, and Pnina Abir-Am (Rutgers University Press, 1996), pp. 39–56.

    6. Vivienne Malone Mayes, ‘Black and Female’, Association for Women in Mathematics Newsletter, 1975, 5, 6, 4–6.

    7. Ruth Oldenzeil, ‘Decoding the Silence: Women Engineers and Male Culture in the U.S., 1878–1951’, History and Technology, 1997, 14, 65–95.

    8. Susan Katz Miller, ‘Asian-Americans Bump Against Glass Ceilings’, Science, 1992, 258, 5085, 1224–5, 1228.

    9. Arpita Subhash, ‘Women and Science: Issues and Perspectives in the Indian Context’, in Gender and Science: Studies Across Cultures, ed. Neelam Kumar (Cambridge University Press India, 2012), pp. 264–91.

    Part 2: Gendering of Fields of Science and Technology

    10. Margaret Rossiter, ‘Protecting Home Economics, the Women’s Field’, Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action, 1940–1972 (Johns Hopkins Press, 1995), pp. 165–85.

    11. Brent Robert MacWilliams, Bonnie Schmidt, and Michael Bleich, ‘Men in Nursing’, American Journal of Nursing, 2013, 113, 1, 38–44.

    12. C. Megan Urry, ‘Are Photons Gendered? Women in Physics and Astronomy’, in Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering, ed. Londa Schiebinger (Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 150–64.

    13. Caroline Hayes, ‘Computer Science: The Incredible Shrinking Woman’, in Gender Codes: Why Women are Leaving Computing, ed. Thomas Misa (John Wiley & Sons, 2010), pp. 25–49.

    Part 3: Work/Life Balance

    14. Marcia Barinaga, ‘Surprises Across the Cultural Divide: Germany, Italy, Sweden, Turkey’, Science, 1994, 263, 1468–9, 1472; 1475–7; 1480–2; 1487–8; 1491–2.

    15. Mary Ann Mason and Marc Goulden, ‘Marriage and Baby Blues: Redefining Gender Equity in the Academy’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 2004, 596, 86–103.

    16. Londa Schiebinger and Shannon Gilmartin, ‘Housework is an Academic Issue’, Academe, Jan./Feb. 2010, 39–44.

    17. Londa Schiebinger, Andrea Davies Henderson, and Shannon K. Gilmartin, Dual-Career Academic Couples: What Universities Need to Know (Clayman Institute for Gender Research, 2008), pp. 1–33.

    Part 4: Institutional Barriers and Solutions

    18. Margaret Rossiter, ‘Taking on Academia: Tokenism, "Revolving Doors", and Lawsuits to 1985’, Women Scientists in America: Forging A New World Since 1972 (Johns Hopkins Press, 2012), pp. 21–40.

    19. Virginia Valian, ‘Gender Schemas at Work’, Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women (MIT Press, 1998), pp. 1–22.

    20. Corinne Moss-Racusin, John Dovidio, Victoria Brescoll, Mark Graham, and Jo Handelsman, ‘Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, 109, 41, 16474–9.

    21. Sue V. Rosser, ‘The Gender Gap in Patents’, Breaking into the Lab: Engineering Progress for Women in Science (New York University Press, 2012), pp. 150–77.

    22. Abigail Stewart, Janet Malley, and Danielle LaVaque-Manty, ‘Faculty Recruitment: Mobilizing Science and Engineering Faculty’, in Transforming Science and Engineering: Advancing Academic Women, eds. Abigail J. Stewart, Janet E. Malley, and Danielle LaVaque-Manty (University of Michigan Press, 2007), pp. 133–51.

    23. Donna Riley, ‘LGBT-Friendly Workplaces in Engineering’, Leadership and Management in Engineering, Jan. 2008, 19–23.

    Volume II: Body Politics: Science and Medicine Define Sex and Gender

    Part 1: What is Sex?

    24. Jennifer Fishman, Janis Wick, and Barbara Koenig, ‘The Use of "Sex" and "Gender" to Define and Characterize Meaningful Differences Between Men and Women’, Agenda for Research on Women’s Health for the 21st Century (NIH Publication No. 99-4389, 1999), pp. 15–20.

    25. Anne Fausto-Sterling, ‘The Five Sexes’, The Sciences, Mar./Apr. 1993, 33, 2, 20–5.

    26. Anne Fausto-Sterling, ‘The Five Sexes, Revisited’, The Sciences, July/Aug. 2000, 40, 4, 18–23.

    27. Suzanne Kessler, ‘The Medical Construction of Gender: Case Management of Intersexed Infants’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1990, 16, 1, 3–25.

    28. Anne Fausto-Sterling, ‘The Dynamic Development of Gender Variability’, Journal of Homosexuality, 2012, 59, 398–421.

    29. Anne Fausto-Sterling, ‘Bare Bones of Sex: Part I—Sex and Gender’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 2005, 30, 2, 1491–528.

    Part 2: Science Defines Norms of Femininity and Masculinity

    30. Londa Schiebinger, ‘Skeletons in the Closet: The First Illustrations of the Female Skeleton in Eighteenth-Century Anatomy’, Representations, 1986, 14, 42–82.

    31. Londa Schiebinger, The Anatomy of Difference: Race and Gender in Eighteenth-Century Science’, in The Politics of Difference, ed. Felicity Nussbaum (special issue of Eighteenth-Century Studies), 1990, 23, 387–406.

    32. Jennifer Morgan, ‘"Some Could Suckle over Their Shoulder": Male Travelers, Female Bodies, and the Gendering of Racial Ideology, 1500–1770’, The William and Mary Quarterly, 1997, 54, 1, 167–92.

    33. Elizabeth Fee, ‘Nineteenth-Century Craniology: The Study of the Female Skull’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1979, 53, 3, 415–33.

    34. Cynthia Russett, ‘Hairy Men and Beautiful Women’, Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood (Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 78–103.

    35. Nelly Oudshoorn, ‘The Birth of Sex Hormones’, Beyond the Natural Body: An Archeology of Sex Hormones (Routledge, 1994), pp. 15–41.

    36. Sarah Richardson, ‘Sexing the X: How the X Became the "Female Chromosome"’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 2012, 37, 4, 909–33.

    37. Anne Fausto-Sterling ‘A Question of Genius: Are Men Really Smarter than Women?’, Myths of Gender: Biological Theories about Women and Men (Basic Books, 1985), pp. 13–60.

    38. Janet Hyde and Janet Mertz, ‘Gender, Culture, and Mathematics Performance’, Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, 2009, 106, 22, 8801–7.

    39. Sigrid Schmitz, ‘Sex, Gender and the Brain: Biological Determinism versus Socio-Cultural Constructivism’, in Sex and Gender in Biomedicine: Theories, Methodologies, Results, eds. Ineke Klinge and Claudia Wiesemann (University of Göttingen Press, 2010), pp. 57–76.

    40. Lynda Birke, ‘Telling the Rat What to Do: Laboratory Animals, Science, and Gender’, in Gender and the Science of Difference: Cultural Politics of Contemporary Science and Medicine, ed. Jill Fisher (Rutgers University Press, 2011), pp. 91–107.

    41. Lisa Weasel, ‘Feminist Intersections in Science: Race, Gender and Sexuality through the Microscope’, Hypatia, 2004, 19, 1, 183–93.

    Volume III: Gender Bias in Science and Technology

    Part 1: Gender Bias in Science

    42. Londa Schiebinger, ‘Why Mammals are Called Mammals: Gender Politics in Eighteenth-Century Natural History’, American Historical Review, 1993, 98, 382–411.

    43. Donna Haraway, ‘Apes in Eden, Apes in Space: Mothering as a Scientist for National Geographic’, Primate Visions (Routledge, 1989), pp. 133–85, 400–5.

    44. Lori Hager, ‘Sex Matters: Letting Skeletons Tell the Story’, in Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering, ed. Londa Schiebinger (Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 65–78.

    45. Joan Gero, ‘Genderlithics: Women’s Roles in Stone Tool Production’, in Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, eds. Joan Gero and Margaret Conkey (Basil Blackwell, 1991), pp. 163–93.

    46. Bonnie Spanier, ‘Sex and the Single Cell: Distorting Genetics’, Impartial Science: Gender Ideology in Molecular Biology (Indiana University Press, 1995), pp. 55–65.

    47. Gayle Greene, ‘Richard Doll and Alice Stewart: Reputation and the Shaping of Scientific "Truth"’, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 2011, 54, 4, 504–31.

    48. Annaliese Beery and Irving Zucker, ‘Sex Bias in Neuroscience and Biomedical Research’, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2011, 35, 3, 565–72.

    49. K. Efua Taylor, Catalina Vallejo-Giraldo, Niccole Schaible, Rosita Zakeri, and Virginia Miller, ‘Reporting of Sex as a Variable in Cardiovascular Studies Using Cultured Cells’, Biology of Sex Differences, 2011, 2, 11, 1–7.

    50. Nikolaos Patsopoulos, Athina Tatsioni, and John Ioannidis, ‘Claims of Sex Differences: An Empirical Assessment in Genetic Associations’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 2007, 298, 8, 880–93.

    Part 2: Gender Bias in Technology

    51. Rachel Maines, ‘The Job Nobody Wanted’, The Technology of Orgasm: ‘Hysteria’, the Vibrator, and Women’s Sexual Satisfaction (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), pp. 1–20.

    52. Sharra Vostral, ‘Tampons: Re-Scripting Technologies as Feminist’, in Feminist Technology, eds. Linda Layne, Sharra Vostral, and Kate Boyer (University of Illinois Press, 2010), pp. 136–53.

    53. Rachel Weber, ‘Manufacturing Gender in Commercial and Military Cockpit Design’, Science, Technology, & Human Values, 1997, 22, 2, 235–53.

    54. Caroline Pelletier, ‘Gaming in Context: How Young People Construct their Gendered Identities in Playing and Making Games’, in Beyond Barbie and Mortal Kombat: New Perspectives on Gender and Gaming, eds. Yasmin Kafai, Carrie Heeter, Jill Denner, and Jennifer Sun (MIT Press, 2008), pp. 145–59.

    55. Wendy Faulkner, ‘"Nuts and Bolts and People": Gender-Troubled Engineering Identities’, Social Studies of Science, 2007, 37, 331–56.

    56. Sam Kean, ‘Reinventing the Pill: Male Birth Control’, Science, 2012, 338, 318–20.

    Volume IV: Gendered Innovations: Creating Science and Technology

    Part 1: Have Women Created Sciences?

    57. Jean Donnison, ‘Medical Women and Lady Midwives: A Case Study in Medical and Feminist Politics’, Women’s Studies: An Inter-Disciplinary Journal, 1976, 3, 3, 229–50.

    58. Zweifel, Helen. ‘The Gendered Nature of Biodiversity Conservation’, National Women’s Studies Association Journal, 1977, 9, 107–23.

    Part 2: Gender in Science Theory

    59. Helen Longino, ‘Can There Be a Feminist Science?’, Hypatia, 1987, 3, 51–64.

    60. Donna Haraway. ‘Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspectives’, Feminist Studies, 1988, 14, 575–99.

    61. Sandra Harding, ‘"Strong Objectivity" and Socially Situated Knowledge’, Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking from Women’s Lives (Cornell University Press, 1991), pp. 138–63.

    62. Linda Marie Fedigan, ‘Is Primatology a Feminist Science?’, in Women in Human Evolution, ed. Lori Hager (Routledge, 1997), pp. 56–75.

    63. Sue V. Rosser, ‘Through the Lenses of Feminist Theory: Focus on Women and Information Technology’, Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies, 2005, 26, 1, 1–23.

    64. Alison Wylie, ‘Doing Archaeology as a Feminist: Introduction’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2007, 14, 209–16.

    Part 3: Gendered Innovations Theory

    65. Londa Schiebinger and Martina Schraudner, ‘Interdisciplinary Approaches to Achieving Gendered Innovations in Science, Medicine, and Engineering’, Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 2011, 36, 2, 154–67.

    66. Marina Manchetti and Tila Raudma, ‘Mainstreaming Gender in Research throughout the Framework Programme, in Stocktaking: 10 Years of "Women in Science" Policy by the European Commission, 1999–2009’ (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010), pp. 174–88.

    67. Ineke Klinge, ‘Sex and Gender in Biomedicine: Promises for Women and Men’, in Sex and Gender in Biomedicine: Theories, Methodologies, Results, eds. Ineke Klinge and Claudia Wiesemann (University of Gottingen Press, 2010), pp. 15–32.

    68. Institute of Medicine (IOM) Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary (National Academies Press, 2012).

    69. Knut Sørensen, ‘The Anatomy of Inclusion’, in Technologies of Inclusion: Gender in the Information Society, eds. Knut Sørensen, Wendy Faulkner, and Els Rommes (Tapir Academic Press, 2011), pp. 215–40.

    70. Els Rommes, ‘Gender Sensitive Design Practices’, in Encyclopedia of Gender and Information Technology, ed. Eileen Trauth (Idea Group Reference, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 675–81.

    71. Martina Schraudner, ‘Gender and innovation: Fraunhofer’s Discover Gender Research Findings’, in The Innovation Potential of Diversity: Practical Examples for the Innovation Management, eds. Anne Spritzley, Peter Ohlausen, and Dieter Sprath (Fraunhofer-Institut für System-und Innovationsforschung, 2010), pp. 169–85.

    72. Klaus Schröder, Female Interaction Strategy (Design People, 2012), pp. 6–25.

    Part 4: Gendered Innovations Case Studies

    73. Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, ‘Sex and Gender in Cardiovascular Disease’, in Sex and Gender Aspects in Clinical Medicine, eds. Sabine Oertelt-Prigione and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek (Springer Verlag, 2012), pp. 17–44.

    74. ‘Osteoporosis Research in Men: Rethinking Standards and Reference Models’, in Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment, eds. Londa Schiebinger, Ineke Klinge, Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, and Martina Schraudner (Stanford University, 2011–13).

    75. ‘The Genetics of Sex Determination: Rethinking Concepts and Theories’, in Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment, eds. Londa Schiebinger, Ineke Klinge, Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, and Martina Schraudner (Stanford University, 2011–13).

    76. ‘Machine Translation: Analyzing Gender’, in Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment, eds. Londa Schiebinger, Ineke Klinge, Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, and Martina Schraudner (Stanford University, 2011–13).

    77. ‘Water Infrastructure: Participatory Research and Design’ in Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment, eds. Londa Schiebinger, Ineke Klinge, Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, and Martina Schraudner (Stanford University, 2011–13).

    78. Susanne Maass and Els Rommes, ‘Uncovering the Invisible: Gender-Sensitive Analysis of Call Center Work and Software’, in Gender Designs IT: Construction and Deconstruction of Information Society Technology, eds. Isabel Zorn, Susanne Maass, Els Rommes, Carola Schirmer, and Heidi Schelhowe (Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2007), pp. 97–108.


    Edited and with a new introduction by Londa Schiebinger, Stanford University, USA