2nd Edition

Women's Entrepreneurship

By Maura McAdam Copyright 2023
    188 Pages 16 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    188 Pages 16 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Drawing on the entrepreneurial ecosystem as a frame of reference, this new edition of Female Entrepreneurship Women’s Entrepreneurship – continues to challenge contemporary assumptions regarding who or what is an entrepreneur. It draws upon relevant literature and research to enable research-led teaching delivery and provides students with a comprehensive understanding of women’s entrepreneurship and a solid foundation from which they can pursue further studies.

    Informative but concise, Women’s Entrepreneurship covers key concepts, issues, themes and approaches and provides useful suggested topics for debate. Updates include a revised chapter on Emerging Technologies and Women’s Entrepreneurship, which explores digital entrepreneurship and cyberfeminism. Contextualisation of Women’s Entrepreneurship acknowledges the broader contextual influences on women’s entrepreneurship. Finally, two new chapters have been added looking at The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem and Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy. International case studies explore the socio-economic context for women’s entrepreneurship in regional, national and international economies. Pedagogy to aid learning is incorporated throughout, including learning outcomes, boxes to highlight key research insights and best practice as well as discussion points and activities.

    This book is important supplementary reading on entrepreneurship, small business management and women's and gender studies courses – it will prove particularly useful to women moving towards starting their own business as well as postgraduate students researching the topic for the first time.


    List of figures, tables and boxes………………………………………………………………...


    Chapter 1: Setting the Scene

      1. Introduction……………………………………
      2. Statement of Aims
      3. Women’s Entrepreneurship Defined
      4. Before We Start- a Few Statistics
      5. The Lure of Business Ownership
      6. Profile of Women Owned Businesses
      7. Book Structure

    Chapter 2: The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Learning Outcomes

    2.3 Theoretical Grounding of the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Approach

    2.4 The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Defined

    2.5 Ecosystem – Its Theoretical Roots

    2.6 An Inclusive Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    2.7 Entrepreneurial Ecosystem and Gender

    2.8 Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Intermediaries

    2.9 Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Critique

    2.10 Conclusion

    2.11 Discussion Points and Activities

    Chapter 3: The Socio-Economic Context of Women’s Entrepreneurship

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Learning Outcomes

    3.3 Labour Market Structure

    3.4 Occupational Segregation

    3.5 Gender Wage Gap

    3.6 Work-life Balance

    3.7 Workplace Discrimination and the Glass Ceiling Effect

    3.8 Segregated Employment Patterns and Women’s Entrepreneurship

    3.9 Conclusion

    3.10 Discussion Points and Activities

    Chapter 4: Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Learning Outcomes

    4.3 Entrepreneurship Policy Efforts

    4.4 Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy

    4.5 Fix the Woman Approach

    4.6 Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Policy

    4.7 Lean in Solutions

    4.8 Gender Mainstreaming

    4.9 Conclusion

    4.10 Discussion Points and Activities

    Chapter 5: Entrepreneurship as Gendered

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Learning Outcomes

    5.3 The question should not be ‘who is an entrepreneur’ but rather ‘who is an entrepreneuse’?

    5.4 Societal Gendered Expectations

    5.5 Gender Stereotypes and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    5.6 The Implications of the Androcentric Entrepreneurial Mentality

    5.7 The Female Under-Performance Hypothesis

    5.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 6: Feminist Methodological Approaches

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Learning Outcomes

    6.3 What is Gender?

    6.4 Is Gender a Performance or a Performative?

    6.5 Using Gender as a Lens to Explore Women’s Entrepreneurship

    6.6 Feminist Research Methodologies

    6.6.1 Liberal Feminist Theory

    6.6.2 Social Feminist Theory

    6.6.3 Poststructuralist Feminist Theory

    6.7 Postfeminism

    6.8 Intersectionality of Gender

    6.9 Queer Theory

    6.10 Masculinity Studies

    6.11 Gay Entrepreneurship

    6.12 Feminist Sensitive Approaches

    6.13 Narrative Approaches

    6.14 Reflexivity

    6.15 Conclusion

    Chapter 7: Family in Women-Owned Businesses and Women in Family Businesses

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Learning Outcomes

    7.3 The Double Shift

    7.4 Impact of Family on Business

    7.5 Market Work versus Housework

    7.6 Family Embeddedness

    7.7 The "5M" Framework

    7.8 The paradox of empowering women and the debate around mumpreneurship.

    7.9 Women in Family Business

    7.10 Succession

    7.11 Copreneurship

    7.12 Conclusion

    7.13 Discussion Points and Activities

    Chapter 8: Non-Financial Entrepreneurial Capital

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Learning Outcomes

    8.3 Entrepreneurial Capital Accrual

    8.4 Human Capital

    8.5 Financial Capital

    8.6 Social Capital

    8.7 Female Networking

    8.8 Formal Networking Mechanisms

    8.9 Symbolic Capital

    8.10 Conclusion

    8.11 Discussion Points and Activities

    Chapter 9: Financing Women-Owned Businesses

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Learning Outcomes

    9.3 Accessing Finance

    9.4 Challenges faced by Female Entrepreneurs

    9.5 Pecking Order Hypothesis

    9.6 Bank Finance

    9.7 Demand-Side Risk Aversion

    9.8 Venture Capital

    9.9 Business Angels

    9.10 Crowd Funding

    9.11 Conclusion

    Chapter 10: Emerging Technologies and Women’s Entrepreneurship

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Learning Outcomes:

    10.3 Technology and Entrepreneurship

    10.4 STEM Entrepreneurship

    10.5 The Pipeline Effect

    10.6 Inherent Masculinity of Technology

    10.7 Intersection of Gender and Technology Venturing

    10.8 Fitting in whilst standing out

    10.9 Digital Entrepreneurship and Gender

    10.10 Social Media and Gender

    10.11 Cyberfeminism

    10.12 Conclusion

    10.13 Discussion Points and Activities

    Chapter 11: Contextualisation of Women’s Entrepreneurship

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Learning Outcomes

    11.3 The Argument for a Contextualised Approach

    11.4 Context Defined

    11.5 Waves of Contextualization in Entrepreneurship Research

    11.6 Entrepreneurship in Context

    11.7 The Embeddedness of Women’s Entrepreneurship

    11.8 Moving Forward

    11.9 Conclusion

    11.10 Discussion Points and Activities

    Chapter 12: Conclusion: Exploring Future Research Agendas in the Field of Gender and Entrepreneurship by Susan Marlow

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Past Themes and Concerns

    12.3 Moving Forward – Potential Research Opportunities and Pathways

    12.4 Theoretical Gender and Entrepreneurship

    12.5 Intersectionality

    12.6 Context

    12.7 Finance

    12.8 Social Entrepreneurship

    12.9 Households

    12.10 Researching Gender and Entrepreneurship

    12.11 Concluding Remarks





    Maura McAdam is a Professor of Management and Director of Entrepreneurship at Dublin City University, Ireland.