1st Edition

Writing, Reading, and Understanding in Modern Health Sciences Medical Articles and Other Forms of Communication

By Milos Jenicek Copyright 2014
    232 Pages 18 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    232 Pages
    by CRC Press

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    Medical articles are one of the main vehicles of knowledge translation and evidence communication in the health sciences. Their correct structure and style alone are no longer enough to convey a clear understanding of the intended message. Readers must be able to understand the very essence of the article message. That is the purpose of this book.

    Writing, Reading, and Understanding in Modern Health Sciences: Medical Articles and Other Forms of Communication
    will help the authors of medical articles communicate more effectively in today's practice and health research environment. It explores the most effective practices for communicating using three main medical literature formats: through scientific articles, articles where the subject is not based on the practice of the scientific method, and business reports.

    Describing how to think beyond the prevailing IMRAD article format, this book focuses on the nature, content, domains of thought, and meanings of medical articles. The ideas and underlying propositions in this book are complementary to specific requirements appropriate for each type of medical journal. After reading this book you will better understand:

    • How to write what is considered the most important type of medical article, the research-based medical article
    • How to write an evidence-based argumentative medical article
    • The challenges of clinical case reporting
    • The general framework of medical and research ethics
    • Classification of medical articles and their underlying studies from the causal standpoint

    Supplying you with the understanding required to write more effective medical articles, the book includes details about essay-type articles, research-based articles, thesis as introduction sections, definitions as part of the material and methods sections, modern argumentation and critical thinking underlying results and their discussion and conclusions about them. It also examines qualitative research and case study methodologies from other domains.

    A must-read for all writers, readers, and users of medical articles, this book supplies the tools you need to write compelling medical reports that can help to improve the practice, research, and quality of healthcare at all levels.

    Essays as Communication Tools
    General Types of Essays
    Nature and Purpose of Essays
    Structure of Essays
    Health Sciences Essays as an Exercise in Rhetoric: An Argumentative/Persuasive Essay
    Let Us Conclude

    Research-Based Medical Article: Writing What Is Considered the Most Important Type of Written Medical Article
    The IMRAD Format
         Overview of the IMRAD Format
         Comments on Additional IMRAD Elements
              IMRAD Preceding Entities: Identifications
              IMRAD Following Entities: Contextual and Collateral Information that Follows the IMRAD Core of the Article 2.3 Lab Report Format
    Thinking Beyond Editorial Expectations for Structure, Language, and Style: The Scientific Method behind Research and Ensuing Medical Articles
         Steps of the Scientific Method
    The Business Method and Format: Medical Article as a Business Report
    Qualitative Research-Based and Case Studies-Based Articles and Their Format
    Conclusions: Back to the Article as a Communication Tool

    Thesis: A Key Feature of the Medical Article "Introduction"—Seven Cornerstones for Reporting a Research-Based Study
    Our Thesis of This Chapter
         Article in Health Sciences as an Argumentative Path
    Research Thesis and Its Seven Cornerstones that Define Both Research and the Presentation of Its Results as a Written or Oral Communication
         Seven Cornerstones of Research Paper Design and Development
         Research Problem or Topic of Interest: "About What Do We Wish to Talk?"
         Critically Appraised Best Evidence Available: "Where Are We Now?"
         Objectives of a Research Study: "Why Do We Do All This and What Do We Want to Achieve?"
         Research Hypothesis: "What Is Our Idea about the Nature of the Problem to Be Elucidated?"
         Research Question as a Formulation of the Research Problem: "What Is Then an Answerable Question about Our Hypothesized Problem?"
         Definitions Used: The Essence of Understanding: "How Do We Delineate the Meaning of Everything We Are Using and Working with?"
         Context and Setting of the Study: "What Is the Reality of All Happenings in Which the Study Is Valid?"
    Let Us Conclude

    Definitions: A Key Feature of the "Material and Methods" Section of a Medical Article
    What Might Then Be a Thesis for This Chapter as an Essay?
    What Are Definitions and Their Type in General? The Sort of Definitions We Use
    Definitions in Medicine and Health Sciences and Their Subject
    Why Are Definitions So Important?
    Types of Definitions in Current Medical Research and Practice Uses
    Desirable Qualities and Attributes of Definitions in General
    Desirable Qualities and Attributes of Definitions in Medicine and Other Health Sciences
    The Challenge of Composite Definitions
    Adjectives and Other Challenges of Definitions
    Let Us Conclude

    Reporting Research Critically and the Argumentative Way: A Key Feature of the "Results" and "Discussion" Sections of a Medical Article
    A Thesis for This Essay-Type Chapter?
    What Exactly Is Critical Thinking in Medicine?
    Do We Argue in Medicine?
    A Word about Argumentation and Argument in Medicine as an Exercise in Critical Thinking
         IMRAD Structure, Format and Content
         The "Modern" Argument and Its Building Blocks
         Hence, Does All of This Fit the IMRAD Format?
    Let Us Conclude
         Some Recommendations to Authors and Readers of Articles in Health Sciences

    Cause–Effect Relationships: A Key Feature of the "Discussion" and "Conclusion" Sections of a Medical Article
    Classification of Medical Articles and Their Underlying Studies from the Causal Standpoint
    Challenges of Understanding and Communication of Cause–Effect Relationships
    Criteria for Accepting Etiology or Other Cause–Effect Relationships
    Causality-Oriented Medical Article as Subject of Critical Appraisal
    A Word about Reporting Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews Articles
    A Word about Clinical Practice Guidelines Articles
    Let Us Conclude
         What Next, and What Should We Do in the World of Cause-and- Effect Relationships in Medical Communication?

    Challenges of Clinical Case Reporting
    : Casus Clinicus Revisitus and Redivivus
         What Might We Propose as a Thesis for This Essay?
         What Will Be Covered?
    Fundamental Considerations and Gnostic Classification of Clinical Case Reports
    Case Reporting Topics
    Types of Case Reporting
         The "Classical" Clinical Case Report
         A Clinical Vignette
         A Case Series Report
    Structure and Organization of Case Reporting
    The Message Itself and Ways to Convey It in an Argumentative Manner
    Challenges of Causal Proof Sought in Single or Few Clinical Cases
         Epidemiological Demonstration of Causality Based on Frequent Cases
         Considerations of Causality in Clinical Pharmacology: The Mainly NonEpidemiological Study of Infrequent Cases
         Considerations of Causality in "Cognition-Based" Medicine; NonEpidemiological Reasoning Focused on Specific Cases
         Single Subject Research Design
    Other Ways of Considering Causality
         Qualitative Research and "Case Study" Methodology from Other Domains: Error and Harm Inquiry (From "Valued" Events to "Bad" Events Evaluation and Reporting)
    Let Us Conclude

    Medical Ethics and Publication Ethics
    The General Framework of Medical and Research Ethics
    Scientific or Research Misconduct
    Publication and Editorial Misconduct
    Referencing in Medical Articles as an Example of a Challenging Tool for Scientific and Publication Misconduct
    Conflict of Interest and Its Disclosure
    Let Us Conclude

    Concluding Remarks and Summary: Future Ways of Knowledge Communication
    The Content: About What Are We Writing?
    The Form, Format and Content: How Do We Make Ourselves Clear? 
         A Reminder about Article Format
         A Reminder about Article Content
    Let Us Conclude
         How to Write an Evidence-Based Argumentative Medical Article



    Milos Jenicek