Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a prominent clinical imaging modality used to diagnose and study diseases in vivo. It is principally based on the detection of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms (the proton; symbol 1H) in water molecules in tissues. X-nuclei MRI (also called non-proton MRI) is based on the detection of the nuclei of other atoms (X-nuclei) in the body, such as sodium (23Na), phosphorus (31P), chlorine (35Cl), potassium (39K), deuterium (2H), oxygen (17O), lithium (7Li), and fluorine (19F) using modified software and hardware. X-nuclei MRI can provide fundamental, new metabolic information related to cellular energetic metabolism and ion homeostasis in tissues that cannot be assessed using standard hydrogen MRI.
This book is an introduction to the techniques and biomedical applications of X-nuclei MRI. It describes the theoretical and experimental basis of X-nuclei MRI, the limitations of this technique, and its potential biomedical applications for the diagnosis and prognosis of many disorders or for quantitative monitoring of therapies in a wide range of diseases. The book is divided into four parts. Part I includes a general description of X-nuclei nuclear magnetic resonance physics and imaging. Part II deals with the MRI of endogenous nuclei such as 23Na, 31P, 35Cl, and 39K; Part III, the MRI of endogenous/exogenous nuclei such as 2H and 17O; and Part IV, the MRI of exogenous nuclei such as 7Li and 19F. The book is illustrated throughout with many representative figures and includes references and reading suggestions in each section. It is the first book to introduce X-nuclei MRI to researchers, clinicians, students, and general readers who are interested in the development of imaging methods for assessing new metabolic information in tissues in vivo in order to diagnose diseases, improve prognosis, or measure the efficiency of therapies in a timely and quantitative manner. It is an ideal starting point for a clinical or scientific research project in non-proton MRI techniques.
Table of Contents
Part 1: MR Physics and Imaging of X-Nuclei 1. Spin Dynamics in NMR 2. X-Nuclei MRI and Energy Metabolism Part 2: Endogenous Nuclei 3. Sodium 23Na 4. Phosphorus 31P 5. Chlorine 35Cl 6. Potassium 39K Part 3: Endogenous/Exogenous Nuclei 7. Deuterium 2H 8. Oxygen 17O Part 4: Exogenous Nuclei 9. Lithium 7Li 10. Fluorine 19F
Guillaume Madelin is an assistant professor in the Department of Radiology at New York University School of Medicine, USA. After studying physics, he obtained his PhD in biological and medical sciences at the University of Bordeaux, France. His current research focuses on developing novel methods of multinuclear MRI to quantify metabolic information in humans in vivo.