While books on the medical applications of x-ray imaging exist, there is not one currently available that focuses on industrial applications. Full of color images that show clear spectrometry and rich with applications, X-Ray Imaging fills the need for a comprehensive work on modern industrial x-ray imaging. It reviews the fundamental science of x-ray imaging and addresses equipment and system configuration. Useful to a broad range of radiation imaging practitioners, the book looks at the rapid development and deployment of digital x-ray imaging system.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to Nondestructive Evaluation. A Brief History of NDE, NDT, and NDC. Application of NDE to Life Cycle Management. X-Ray and γ-Ray Imaging in Context. Other (Than X-Ray and γ-Ray or Energetic Particle) NDE Methods. Electromagnetic Radiation Methods. Optical Testing with Visible Photons. Thermal or Infrared Imaging. Gigahertz–Terahertz Waves (Microwaves and Millimeter Waves) NDE Methods Using Acoustic Energy. Ultrasonic Testing. Acoustic Emission. NDE Methods Using a Tracer Dye Penetrant Testing. Magnetic Particle Inspection. Leak Testing. Other NDE Methods. Eddy Current NDE. Effectiveness and Statistics of NDE. Probability of Detection. Positive Predictive Value and Negative Predictive Value. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve. When and How Much NDE. Industrial X-Ray Imaging Contrasted with Medical X-Ray Imaging. X-Ray History. History Introduction. Laying the Foundation. Discovery of X-Rays. The Morning After. Discovery of Radioactivity. Radiation Therapy Coolidge Tube. Computed Tomography. Industrial Computed Tomography. Radiation Accidents. The Role of X-Ray and γ-Ray Imaging. Introduction. Where X-Ray and γ-Ray Imaging Excel. Where X-Ray and γ-Ray Imaging Fall Short. Practical and Operational Issues. Summary. Physics of X-Ray and γ-Ray Sources. Introduction. Types of High-Energy Photons: X, γ, and Annihilation Radiation. Electrons and X-Ray Radiation Generation. Bremsstrahlung (Braking or Decelerating Electrons). Characteristic X-Rays Accelerating Charge. The Nucleus and γ-Ray and X-Ray Generation. Annihilation Radiation Generation. Units Used to Characterize and Describe High-Energy Photons. High-Energy (X-Ray and γ-Ray) Photon Interactions with Matter. Introduction. Attenuation and Phase Contrast. Attenuation: Photoelectric Absorption, Scatter, and Pair Production. Absorption (Photoelectric Absorption). Scatter. Pair Production. Photonuclear. Photofission. Linear Attenuation Coefficient μ. Mass Attenuation Coefficient μm. Atomic Attenuation Coefficient μa. Molar Attenuation Coefficient μM. Relationship among the Various Attenuation Coefficients. Mixture Rule. Total Attenuation/X-Ray and γ-Ray Attenuation. Phenomena. Reflection. X-Ray Phase Effects. Refraction. Snell’s Law. Total External Reflection of X-Rays Diffraction. X-Ray Phase-Contrast Radiography. Radiation Transport Simulation. Introduction. Why Simulate Radiography. Types of Radiation Commonly Transported in Simulations. Methods of Simulation Discrete Ordinates. Ray Tracing. XRSIM X-Ray Simulation. HADES, a Radiographic Simulation Code. Ray-Tracing Summary. Monte Carlo Method. Los Alamos National Laboratory Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Code. Livermore National Laboratory TART, COG, Peregrine, and MERCURY Monte Carlo Codes Example Photon Transport Simulations. MCNP Used in Analysis of Albedo from Lead and Concrete. MCNP Applied to Collimator Design for a 9 MV Linac. MCNP to Determine Scatter Blur within a Flat-Panel Photodiode Array Detector. HADES Proton Radiographic Simulations to Study Hydrodynamics. COG Simulation Applied to Cargo Interrogation. Radiation Dosimetry, Safety, and Shielding. Introduction. Metrics of Radiation Exposure, Absorbed Dose, Dose Equivalent, and Effective Dose. Radiation Exposure Absorbed Dose. Linear Energy Transfer and Radiation Weighting Factor. Dose Equivalent. Effective Human-Equivalent Dose. Radiation Effects in Humans. Linear No-Threshold (LNT) Model. Human Risk from Low Effective Human-Equivalent Dose. Radiation Measurements for Monitoring Radiation Exposure and Absorbed Dose. Geiger–Muller Counter. Ionization Chamber Radiation Meter. Personal Dosimeter Sources of Human Absorbed Dose. Natural Background Radiation. Radon. Terrestrial X and γ Radiation. Radioisotopes in Food and Beverages. Cosmic Radiation. Man-Made Radiation Absorbed Dose. Occupational Dose Limits. Mining Legacy. Basics of Radiation Protection. Internal Radiation Dose External Radiation Dose. Shielding. Half-Value and Tenth-Value Layer Thickness. Radiation Sources. Introduction. The Perfect Source. Source Attributes: Brightness, Brilliance, Irradiance, Photon Flux Density, Photon Energy Spectrum, and Source Size. Electrically Powered X-Ray Sources. X-Ray Tubes. Common Design Elements and Subsystems of X-Ray Tubes. X-Ray Tube Configurations and Tube-Like Sources. Electron Accelerator-Based Sources. Electrostatic Generator. Synchrotron X-Ray Source. Betatron. Linac. Pulsed Sources. Pulsed X-Ray Tube. Accelerators as Pulsed Sources. Plasma X-Ray Sources. Laser-Driven X-Ray Sources. K alpha (Kα) X-Ray Sources. Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-Ray Source Thomson/Inverse Compton Scattering X-Ray Source. Radioisotopic X-Ray and γ-Ray Sources. Radiation Detectors. Introduction. The Perfect Detector. Fundamental Statistical Considerations. Detection. Principles. Detector Types. Pulse Detection, Energy Discrimination, or Integrating Detection. Point, Line, or Area Detection. Detector Technology Film. Computed Radiography. Scintillators. Clear Crystals, Glass, or Ceramic Scintillators. Granular Composite Scintillators. Structured Scintillators. CCD-Based Area Detectors Employing a Scintillator. CMOS-Based Area Detectors Employing a Scintillator. Direct-Detection Flat Panels. Indirect-Detection Flat Panels. Imaging System Components. Introduction Sources of Detected Signal in X-Ray Imaging. Properties of ΦP. Properties of Background or System Scatter, ΦSbk. Properties of Object Scatter, ΦSobj. X-Ray Scatter Corrections and the Subtleties of Radiographic Imaging. Shielding and Collimation. Collimators. Antiscatter Grids. Limiting Apertures Staging for Object Positioning and Control. DR/CT Acquisition, Processing, Control, and Display How Big Are the Data Sets? On Screen and Interactive Tools of Value for CT. Computers for CT Data Acquisition. Computer Requirements for DR/CT Processing. Computers for CT Reconstruction. Displaying CT Data. Imaging-System Configurations. Introduction. 1-D X-Ray Gauging Systems. Radiography Systems. Radiography with a Linear-Detector Array. Radiography with an Area-Detector Array. 3-D Computed Tomography. CT Scanning with 1-D Gauging Systems. CT Scanning with Linear-Detector Arrays. CT Scanning with Area-Detector Arrays. Summary. Digital Radiography. Introduction. Physical Structure of Digital Radiographic Detectors. Single-Detector Systems. Linear-Detector Arrays. Area-Detector Arrays. Role of Image Calibration and Importance of the Φ0 Measurement. DR/CT Acquisition and Use of the Φ0 Image. Options in Data Processing of Digital Radiographic Image Data. Artifacts in Digital Radiographs. Phantoms/Test Objects and Image Quality Indicators (IQIs Data Analysis and Interpretation. Computed Tomography. Introduction. Foundational Ideas for CT Image Reconstruction CT Data Acquisition and Processing. CT Data Processing and the Importance of Φ0. CT Reconstruction Algorithms. Region of Interest and CT Field-of-View Extension Techniques. The Sinogram. Artifacts in CT Reconstructed Data. Centering Artifacts. Ring Artifacts. Bad-Pixel Artifacts. Angular Positioning Artifacts. X-Ray Magnification Artifacts. Midline Offset Artifacts. Incorrect Vertical Center Cone-Beam Artifacts. Cone-Beam Missing Data Artifacts. Beam-Hardening Artifacts. Scatter Artifacts for High-Aspect Ratio or High-Attenuating Objects. Test Phantoms and Test Objects for System Evaluation. Data Analysis and Interpretation. Image Quality. Introduction. Components of Image Contrast. Components of Spatial Resolution. Components of Transmission Image Noise. X-Ray Transmission Imaging Artifacts. Photon Statistics. Measuring Components of Image Contrast. Modulation Transfer Function. Signal to Noise Ratio and Detective Quantum Efficiency. Probability of Detection and ROC Curves. Special Techniques Introduction. Contrast Agents. Dual Energy for Effective-Atomic Number. Physical Basis for Multiple-Energy Applications. Low-Energy Dual-Energy Techniques. High-Energy Dual-Energy Techniques. Summary of Dual-Energy Measurements. Active and Passive (Emission) CT. Tomosynthesis—Depth Information without CT. Automated Defect Recognition. X-Ray Backscatter. X-Ray Diffraction Topography. X-Ray Microscopy and X-Ray Optics. Pinhole Microscopes. Reflection Optics Microscopes. Kirkpatrick–Baez Reflection Optics Microscopes. Wolter Objective Reflection Optics Microscopes.Refractive Lens Microscopes. Diffraction Optics Microscopes. Selected High-Energy Photon Applications. Introduction. 1D Applications. 2D Applications. X-Ray Digital Radiography of 40 mm Grenades. Automatic Transmission. Dual-MeV Radiography for High-Z Material Discrimination. Phase Contrast Radiography of a Deuterium–Tritium Solid-Layer Single-Shell Fusion Target. 3D Applications. LoTRT Targets. Inspection of Joinery. Metal Weldment. Stardust Reentry Capsule Bond Aviation Safety: DR and CT of Pitot Tubes. Characterization of LX-17 High Explosive. Automotive Applications. Metal Castings. Windshield Wiper Motor Planetary Transmission Gear Assembly. Fuel Pump. Turbomolecular Vacuum Pump. NASA Space Hardware. NASA Advanced Ablator Materials NASA Rocket Booster Nozzle. Diagnosis of Failure in Spare NASA Fuel Cell Pump. Exploring the Limits of MeV Imaging—9 MV and 15 MV Linacs. DS Laser ICF Targets. CT and Tomosynthesis of DoD Ordnance. CT of a WDU-17/B Conventional Warhead. CT and Tomosynthesis of a Multifunction Fuze. Tomosynthesis of an Archaeopteryx Fossil. DR and CT of Art and Objects of Cultural Significance. Concerns with Michelangelo Buonarroti’s Statue of David. CT of Structures Made by Additive. Manufacturing. X-Ray Imaging to Defend the US Homeland. X-Ray DR and X-Ray Backscatter to Inspect Carry-On Luggage. X-Ray CT to Inspect Checked Luggage. X-Ray DR and Diffraction to Inspect Checked Luggage. Nonrotating Gantry Security CT Systems. SureScan Nonrotating Gantry CT System. Rapiscan Nonrotating Gantry CT System. XinRay Laboratory Prototype Nonrotating Gantry CT System. X-Ray Backscatter of Passengers. X-Ray Radiography and Backscatter for Cargo Nonintrusive Inspection Neutron and Proton Imaging. Imaging with Thermal Neutrons. Imaging with MeV Neutrons. Imaging with MeV Protons. Glossary. List of Notations. References. Index
Harry E. Martz is the director of the Nondestructive Characterization Institute and a distinguished member of the technical staff at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He is also principal investigator for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology, Explosives Division; the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, Nuclear and Radiological Imaging Platform; and Passive and x-ray Imaging Scanning Projects. He has also served on several National Academy of Sciences committees on aviation security and was the chair of the Committee on Airport Passenger Screening: Backscatter x-ray Machines. He is a member of the Physics Honor Society Sigma Pi Sigma.
Clinton M. Logan began his career at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1963 after receiving his BSME degree from Montana State University. In 1993, Clint won a US Department of Energy (DOE) grant to apply Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) resources to support Fischer Imaging Corporation in the design of their full-field digital mammography unit for cancer screening. Clint holds five US patents in accelerator and x-ray technology. He is a registered professional engineer in California, a member emeritus of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, and a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Daniel J. Schneberk received undergraduate degrees (one of them in mathematics) from the University of Oregon and a master’s in statistics from the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley). In 1988, Dan took an opportunity to join the nondestructive evaluation group at LLNL, collaborating with Harry Martz and initially working for Clint Logan on materials inspection and characterization issues in the x-Ray Laser Project. His work in NDE has continued to the present. He has received two LLNL Directors Performance Awards and awards from Ford and NASA. Dan is a member of Phi Beta Kappa.
Peter J. Shull is an associate professor of engineering at Penn State Altoona. Dr. Shull has worked in the field of NDE for over 20 years while at the Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the Materials Reliability Division in Boulder, Colorado; at The Johns Hopkins University; and at The Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Shull’s primary research focus is NDE applied to process control. He has authored numerous publications, and is a member of the American Society of Nondestructive Testing, the American Society of Engineering Educators, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
"This book is a major contribution from leaders in the field of x-ray imaging. It provides an excellent foundation in x-ray physics, as well as a rigorous introduction to x-ray imaging along with an abundant collection of applications. I especially like the rich historical background that is provided along with the x-ray fundamentals. The applications collected from the extensive professional experience of the authors are both instructive and timely."
—James F. Shackelford, University of California, Davis, USA
"I like this book very much. It contains very comprehensive explanations of the x-ray imaging methods and physics behind them. This book goes beyond what is typically covered in general NDT or radiography books and includes many particularly interesting insights from the authors. The significant technical details discussed are useful to an advanced practitioner wishing to understand or expand their knowledge and employ advanced x-ray methods to solve inspection problems."
—Richard Bossi, Retired Senior Technical Fellow from The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington, USA
"The book is an excellent survey of the NDE field."
—Carl Crawford, Csuptwo, LLC, Glendale, Wisconsin, USA
"Love it! Great easy to follow material for those who want to learn about industrial/security NDE. For the experts this will be a great reference book. The amount of topics covered is beyond the expertise of most professionals, so there is something to learn here for all of us."
— Richard Robehr Bijjani, Quanttus, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
"A very important book, not to be missed or ignored!"
— Franco Casali, University of Bologna and Academy of Science of Bologna, Italy
"While books on the medical applications of X-ray imaging exist, there is not one currently available that focuses on industrial applications. Full of color images that show clear spectrometry and rich with applications, X-ray Imaging fills the need for a comprehensive work on modern industrial X-ray imaging. It reviews the fundamental science of X-ray imaging and addresses equipment and system configuration. Useful to a broad range of radiation imaging practitioners, the book looks at the rapid development and deployment of digital X-ray imaging system."
—Materials Evaluation, May 2016