The scales involved in modern semiconductor manufacturing and microelectronics continue to plunge downward. Effective and accurate characterization of materials with thicknesses below a few nanometers can be achieved using x-rays. While many books are available on the theory behind x-ray metrology (XRM), X-Ray Metrology in Semiconductor Manufacturing is the first book to focus on the practical aspects of the technology and its application in device fabrication and solving new materials problems.
Following a general overview of the field, the first section of the book is organized by application and outlines the techniques that are best suited to each. The next section delves into the techniques and theory behind the applications, such as specular x-ray reflectivity, diffraction imaging, and defect mapping. Finally, the third section provides technological details of each technique, answering questions commonly encountered in practice. The authors supply real examples from the semiconductor and magnetic recording industries as well as more than 150 clearly drawn figures to illustrate the discussion. They also summarize the principles and key information about each method with inset boxes found throughout the text.
Written by world leaders in the field, X-Ray Metrology in Semiconductor Manufacturing provides real solutions with a focus on accuracy, repeatability, and throughput.
Table of Contents
THE APPLICATIONS. Introduction. Thickness Metrology. Composition and Phase Metrology. Strain and Stress Metrology. Mosaic Metrology. Interface Roughness Metrology. Porosity Metrology. THE SCIENCE. Specular X-Ray Reflectivity. X-Ray Diffuse Scattering. Theory of XRD on Polycrystals. High-Resolution XRD on Single Crystals. Diffraction Imaging and Defect Mapping. THE TECHNOLOGY. Modeling and Analysis. Instrumentation. Accuracy and Precision of X-Ray Metrology. INDEX.