Biomass as Energy Source

Resources, Systems and Applications

Edited by Erik Dahlquist

© 2013 – CRC Press

300 pages

Purchasing Options:
Hardback: 9780415620871
pub: 2013-03-24
US Dollars$132.95
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About the Book

Global energy use is approximately 140 000 TWh per year. Interestingly, biomass production amounts to approximately 270 000 TWh per year, or roughly twice as much, whereas the official figure of biomass use for energy applications is 10-13% of the global energy use. This shows that biomass is not a marginal energy resource but more than capable of meeting all our energy and food needs, provided it is used efficiently. The use of food in generating energy has been extensively debated, but there is actually no need for it given the comprehensive resources available from agriculture and forestry waste.

This book discusses the biomass resources available and aspects like efficient energy use. One way of using energy efficiently is to use waste biomass or cellulosic materials in biorefineries, where production of fibers and products from fibers is combined with production of most chemicals we need in our daily life. Such products include clothes, soap, perfume, medicines etc. Conventional pulp and paper applications, bio-fuel for vehicles and even fuel for aviation as well as heat and power production are covered. The problem with biomass is not availability, but the difficulty to use the resources efficiently without harming the long-term productivity. This book covers all types of resources on a global scale, making it unique. Many researchers from all over the world have contributed to give a good coverage of all the different international perspectives.

This book will provide facts and inspiration to professionals, engineers, researchers, and students as well as to those working for various authorities and organizations.

Reviews

"…discusses the worldwide distribution of biomass and details bioprocessing technologies via case studies. …The authors show that both the capacity and technology exist to regain the primacy of biomass for energy, fuels, and chemicals in a post-fossil-fuel economy. The authors suggest a future in which biomass is optimally managed to meet those needs, while alluding to the challenges."

––Choice, December 2013

Table of Contents

Part I Biomass resources

1. Introduction and context: global biomass resources – types of biomass, quantities and accessibility. Biomass from agriculture, forestry, energy crops and organic wastes

Erik Dahlquist & Jochen Bundschuh

1.1 Hard facts

1.2 Crops used primarily for food

1.2.1 Soybean

1.2.2 Rice

1.2.3 Wheat (Triticum spp.)

1.2.4 Corn (Zea mays) and cassava

1.2.5 Barley, rye and oats

1.2.6 Oil crops

1.2.7 Sugar cane

1.3 Energy crops

1.3.1 Switch grass

1.3.2 Giant Kings Grass

1.3.3 Hybrid poplar

1.3.4 Other proposed energy crops

1.3.5 Quorn

1.4 Animalian biomass and algae

1.4.1 Animalian food

1.4.2 Algae

1.5 Regional overviews

1.5.1 EU27 – an overall energy balance

1.5.2 China – today and in year 2050

1.5.3 India

1.5.4 USA

1.5.5 Brazil

1.5.6 Africa south of the Sahara

1.6 Other regions

1.7 Global perspective

1.8 Questions for discussion

2. Chemical composition of biomass

Torbjörn A. Lestander

2.1 Introduction

2.1.1 A new biocarbon era

2.1.2 The potential of biomass for energy conversion

2.2 Major components of biomass

2.2.1 Water in biomass

2.2.2 Dry matter content

2.3 Organic matter

2.3.1 Cellulose

2.3.2 Hemicellulose

2.3.3 Lignin

2.3.4 Extractives

2.3.5 Sugars

2.3.6 Starch

2.3.7 Proteins

2.4 Inorganic substances

2.5 Energy content

2.6 Chemical compounds and biomass processing

2.6.1 Drying

2.6.2 Wet processing

2.6.3 Health aspects

2.6.4 Bulk handling

2.6.5 Heat treatment of biomass

2.7 Conclusion

2.8 Questions for discussion

3. Characterization of biomass using instruments – Measurement of forest and crop residues

Robert Aulin

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Quality aspects and sources of variation

3.2.1 Volume, weight and moisture content

3.2.2 Calorific value

3.2.3 Other parameters

3.3 The fuel chain and its impact on the moisture content

3.3.1 The fuel chain

3.3.2 Sources of variation in moisture content

3.3.2.1 The forest

3.3.2.2 Terminal storage

3.3.2.3 Transport

3.3.2.4 Site storage and fuel handling

3.4 Moisture measurement

3.4.1 Gravimetric moisture measurement

3.4.1.1 The gravimetric method

3.4.1.2 Sampling

3.4.1.3 Practical illustration

3.4.2 Instrumental methods

3.4.2.1 Introduction

3.4.2.2 Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR)

3.4.2.3 Microwave spectroscopy (RF)

3.4.2.4 X-ray spectroscopy

3.4.2.5 Method selection

3.5 Practical applications for moisture data

3.5.1 Real-time measurement

3.5.2 Price settlement

3.5.3 Logistics

3.5.4 Fuel mixing

3.5.5 Boiler control

3.6 Future perspectives

4. Bioenergy in Brazil – from traditional to modern systems

Semida Silveira

4.1 From developing country to leading economy

4.2 From traditional fuelwood to multiple bioenergy systems

4.3 Forest-based biomass in Brazil

4.3.1 Fuel wood and charcoal – traditional uses of biomass in Brazil

4.4 Biofuels for transport

4.4.1 The development of modern bioethanol production

4.4.2 The development of biodiesel production

4.5 Bioenergy – opportunities for sustainable development

5. Biomass in different biotopes – an extensive resource

Erik Dahlquist & Jochen Bundschuh

5.1 Bioenergy in northern Europe

5.1.1 Different biotopes

5.2 Bioenergy in southern Europe

5.3 Biomass in the tropics

5.4 Questions for discussions

6. Organic waste as a biomass resource

Eva Thorin, Thorsten Ahrens, Elias Hakalehto & Ari Jääskeläinen

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Pre-treatment

6.2.1 Examples of pre-treatment

6.3 Biogas production

6.3.1 Basics of the biogas process

6.3.2 Technical background for waste-to-biogas utilization strategies

6.3.3 Results from waste digestion

6.3.4 Example for a local implementation strategy

6.4 Combustion of waste

6.4.1 Technical background

6.4.2 Examples of combustion of waste

6.4.3 Development considerations

6.5 Examples of use of organic waste in other conversion processes

6.5.1 Ethanol and butanol from organic waste

6.5.2 Hydrothermal carbonization of organic waste fractions

6.5.2.1 HTC reactions

6.5.2.2 Substrates

6.5.2.3 HTC of a selected biowaste substrate

6.5.3 Pyrolysis and gasification of organic waste

6.6 Questions for discussion

Part II Systems utilizing biomass – system optimization

7. System aspects of biomass use in complex applications: biorefineries for production of heat, electric power and chemicals

Erik Dahlquist & Jochen Bundschuh

7.1 Traditional use of wood

7.2 Use of waste and wood for chemicals

7.3 Use of herbs for medical and other applications

8. Biorefineries using wood for production of speciality cellulose fibers, lignosulfonates, vanillin, bioethanol and biogas – the Borregaard Sarpsborg example

Stefan Backa, Martin Andresen & Trond Rojahn

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The borregaard sarpsborg biorefinery of today

8.2.1 Lignocellulosic crops and residues

8.2.2 Biomaterials, specialty celluloses

8.2.3 Bioethanol

8.2.4 Biomaterials, lignosulfonates

8.2.5 Food/chemicals, vanillin

8.3 Energy

8.4 Environment

8.5 The future

8.6 Conclusion

9. Biorefineries using crops for production of ethanol, biogas and chemicals – a largescale demonstration in Nanyang, Henan province, China of the bio-ethanol industry under Tianguan recycling economic mode

Du Feng-Guang & FengWensheng

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Domestic and international background and conditions related this case study

9.3 Qualitative analysis of the case study

9.3.1 The scope of the case study

9.3.2 Description of the basic characteristics of the case study

9.3.3 The recycling economic diagram and its analysis of this case

9.4 Quantitative analysis of this case study

9.4.1 Changes in four major indicator systems

9.5 Energy flow analysis

9.5.1 The diagram of system general material flow

9.6 General material flow analysis

9.6.1 Analysis of systems group diversion

9.7 System improvements

9.8 Conclusion

10. Bioenergy polygeneration, carbon capture and storage related to the pulp and paper industry and power plants

Jinyue Yan, Muhammad Raza Naqvi & Erik Dahlquist

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Biorefinery systems in the pulp industry

10.2.1 Black liquor gasification (BLG) based biofuel production

10.2.2 Black liquor gasification-based power generation

10.3 Biofuel upgrading with pellet production

10.4 Performance and sustainability analysis

10.4.1 Performance of BLG-based biofuel production

10.4.2 Performance of BLG-based electricity generation

10.4.3 Performance of pellet production system

10.5 Bioenergy systems and CCS potential

10.5.1 BLG systems with CCS

10.6 Conclusions

11. Biofuels and green aviation

Emily Nelson

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Aviation fuel requirements

11.2.1 Jet fuel specifications

11.2.2 Alternative jet fuel specifications

11.3 Fuel properties

11.3.1 Effect of composition on fuel properties

11.3.2 Emissions

11.4 Biofuel feedstocks for aviation fuels

11.4.1 Crop production for oil from seeds

11.4.2 Crop production for oil from algae

11.5 Manufacturing stages

11.5.1 Dewatering, crude oil extraction and pre-processing

11.5.2 Transesterification

11.5.3 Hydroprocessing

11.5.4 Other strategies

11.5.5 Co-products

11.6 Life cycle assessment

11.7 Conclusions

12. Pulp and paper industry – trends for the future

Erik Dahlquist & Jochen Bundschuh

13. Biorefineries using waste – production of energy and chemicals from biomasses by micro-organisms

Elias Hakalehto, Ari Jääskeläinen, Tarmo Humppi & Lauri Heitto

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sustainable production of fuels and chemicals from wastes and other biomasses

13.2.1 Circulation of matter and chemical energy in microbiological processes

13.3 Replacing fossil fuels by the biomasses as raw materials

13.4 Microbes carry out the reactions with energetically feasible biocatalysis

13.4.1 Ecological thinking based on understanding microscopic interactions

13.4.2 Air and water pollution diminished by natural processes

13.5 Transport of fuels and chemicals less abundant and risky when local sources are exploited

13.6 Beneficial impact on the socio-economic structures of the new, small or medium sized bioindustries

13.7 Biomass and raw materials

13.7.1 Enzymatic hydrolysis of macromolecules

13.7.2 Hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin

13.7.3 Starch and other saccharides from food industry by-streams and agriculture

13.7.4 Industrial waste biomasses

13.7.5 Municipal waste and waste water utilization

13.7.6 Removal of harmful substances

13.8 Fermentation processes and bioreactor design revolutionized

13.8.1 Increased productivity lowers the cost of bioreactor construction and downstream processes

13.8.2 PMEU (Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit) used for process simulation

13.8.3 Anaerobiosis made efficient

13.8.4 Some exploitable biochemical pathways of bacteria and other microbes

13.8.5 Mixed cultures in bioengineering

13.8.6 Novel principles for the planning of unit operations for bulk production

13.9 Thermophilic processes

13.10 Volatile products

13.11 Differences between chemical technologies and biotechnical process solutions

13.12 Biorefinery concept evaluation

13.12.1 New ideas on materials: all process wastes serve as raw materials in nature

13.12.2 Multiple uses of the production equipment

13.12.3 Plant nutrition and agriculture connected with bioindustries

13.12.4 Local products of microbial metabolism with global impacts

13.13 Conclusions

14. Concluding remarks and perspectives on the future of energy systems using biomass

Erik Dahlquist, Elias Hakalehto & Semida Silveira

Subject index

About the Editor

Erik Dahlquist is Professor in Energy Technology at Malardalen University (MDU) in Västerås, Sweden focussing on biomass utilization and process efficiency improvements. He started working at ASEA Research in 1975 as engineer in analytical chemistry related to nuclear power, troubleshooting of electrical equipment and manufacturing processes. In 1982 he started with energy technology within the pulp and paper industry and participated in the development of year-around fuel production from peat. In 1984 ASEA started a company ASEA Oil and Gas with a focus on off-shore production systems. One area was waste water treatment and separation of oil and water. He then became technical project manager for development of a Cross Flow Membrane filter. This led to the formation of ABB Membrane Filtration. The filter is now a commercial product at Finnish Metso Oy under the name Optifilter. As part of this development work he started as an industrial PhD student at KTH and received his doctorate in 1991. In 1989 he became project leader for ABB’s Black Liquor Gasification project, which resulted in a number of patents. From 1992 to 1995 he was department manager for Combustion and Process Industry Technology at ABB Corporate Research. He was also at that time member of the board of directors for ABB Corporate Research in Sweden. From January 1996 to 2002 he was General Manager for the Product Responsible Unit “PulpApplications”worldwide within ABB Automation Systems. The product area was Advanced Control, Diagnostics, Optimization, Process Simulation and Special Sensors within the pulp and paper industry. During 1997–2000 he was part time adjunct professor at KTH and from 2000 to 2002 part time professor at MDU. He has been responsible for research in Environmental, Energy and Resource Optimization at MDU since 2000. During 2001–2007 he was first deputy dean and later dean of the faculty of Natural Science and Technology. He has been a member of the board of the Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute division for Process Control systems since 1999. He received the ABB Corporate Research Award 1989. He has been a member of the board of SIMS (Scandinavian Simulation and Modeling Society) since 2003 and deputy member of the board of Eurosim since 2009. He has been a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Applied Energy, Elsevier since 2007. He is also a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Engineering (IVA) since 2011. He has 21 (different) patents and approximately 170 scientific publications in refereed journals or conference proceedings with referee procedure to his name. He has published seven books, either as editor or author.

About the Series

Sustainable Energy Developments

ISSN 2164-0645

Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

Editorial Board
Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD:
Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC009010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TEC031030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels