The first edition of this major introduction to linguistics rapidly established itself as an important student textbook, and a reference tool for those who already have some acquaintance with linguistics. This second edition has been updated and revised and includes new chapters on syntax and on current developments in generative grammar, as well as new material on the nature of language and on morphology.
This book first provides a comprehensive critical review of the analytic tools and theories of linguistics and systematically surveys major concepts in phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. Having established the basic nature and structure of language, the final part of the book engages some of the wider issues concerning the use of language in speaking and understanding (psycholinguistics), language development in children, social aspects of language (sociolinguistics), and historical language choice.
Part 1: The Nature of Language 1. Are Humans Unique? 1.1. On Origins 1.2. Rules and Creativity 1.3. Animal Communication and the ‘Design Features’ of Language 1.4. Genetic Transmission of Language 1.5. Human-Like Language in Higher Primates? 1.6. The Functional Significance of Hockett’s Design Features 1.7. Structure and Function in Language 1.8. Saussure’s Structuralist Linguistics. Exercises. Bibliography 2. The Data of Linguistics and the Nature of Learning 2.1. Structuralist Linguistics and Behaviourist Psychology 2.2. Objections to a Corpus-Based Approach 2.3. Rules and Intuitions – Mentalist Linguistics 2.4. Objections to Mentalist Linguistics 2.5. Native Language Learning; Empiricism v. Rationalism 2.6. External Evidence for Language Innateness 2.7. An Internal Argument for Innateness. Exercises. Bibliography Part 2: The Structure of Language 3. Phonetics 3.1. Primacy of a Spoken Language 3.2. Sound Waves 3.3. Air Vibration 3.4. Voice production 3.5. Respiration and Speech Airstream Mechanism 3.6. Analysis and Classification of Vowels 3.7. Liquids and Fricatives 3.8. Places of Articulation 3.9. Stops and Affricates 3.10. Voicing and Nasalisation 3.11. Suprasegmentals. Exercises. Bibliography 4. Phonology 4.1. Physical Sound and Linguistic Sound 4.2. Contextual Variation of Sound 4.3. Criteria of Analysis 4.4. Daniel Jones and the Phoneme 4.5. Sapir’s Psychological Approach 4.6. Discovery Procedures 4.7. Classification of Phonemes 4.8. Distinctive Features 4.9. Rules and Formalism. Exercises. Bibliography 5. Morphology 5.1. The Morpheme as the Basic Unit 5.2. Phonologically Conditioned Morphological Variation 5.3. Boundaries between Morphemes – the Morph 5.4. the Word – Definitional Criteria 5.5. Morphological Classification of Languages 5.6. The Priority Question – Words v. Morphemes 5.7. Lexical Productivity – the Creation of Words 5.8. Approaches to Morphological Description. Exercises. Bibliography 6. Syntax 6.1. The Domain of Syntax 6.2. Representing Constituency: Phrase Structure Grammar 6.3. Justifying Constituency: Empirical Diagnostics 6.4. Subcategorisation Restrictions 6.5. Transformations. Exercises. Bibliography 7. Semantics 7.1. Word-Meaning and Sentence-Meaning 7.2. Semantic Properties and Relations of Words 7.3. Semantic Properties and Relations of Sentences 7.4. Theories of Word-Meaning 7.5. Theories of Sentence-Meaning 7.6. Semantics and Pragmatics. Exercises. Bibliography 8. Rules and Principles in the Theory of Grammar 8.1. Restricting the Base 8.2. Constraining Transformational Rules 8.3. Abstract Principles in Syntax 8.4. Generative Phonology 8.5. Autosegmental Representations 8.6. Template-Based Morphology 8.7. Metrical Structures 8.8. Stress in Syntax. Exercises. Bibliography Part 3: The Use of Language 9. Psycholinguistics 9.1. Linguistics, Psycholinguistics and Cognitive Psychology 9.2. Psychological Reality of Distinctive Features 9.3. Psychological Reality of Constituent-Structure 9.4. Psychological Reality of Deep Structures 9.5. Psychological Reality of Transformational Rules 9.6. Against the Psychological Reality of Transformational Rules 9.7. An Alternative to the Derivational Theory of Complexity 9.8. Semantics and Sentence Memory 9.9. The Psychological Lexicon 9.10 Universal Categories of Thought. Exercises. Bibliography 10. Language Development in Children 10.1. Description and Explanation in Language Acquisitional Research 10.2. Phonological Development 10.3. Early Syntactic Development 10.4. Transformational Rules in Language Development 10.5. Semantic Development: Relational Meanings 10.6. Semantic Development: Referential Meanings 10.7. The Development of Speech-Acts 10.8. Linguistic Environment and Language Learning. Exercises. Bibliography 11. Comparative Linguistics 11.1. The Problem of ‘Language’ 11.2. Types of Similarity and their Significance 11.3. Universals and Typology of Language 11.4. The Nature of Language Change 11.5. Change and Reconstruction 11.6. Linguistic geography 11.7. Mechanisms of Linguistic Change. Exercises. Bibliography 12. Sociolinguistics 12.1. Language and Socialisation 12.2. Language Varieties 12.3. Class, Codes and Control 12.4. Variable Rules 12.5. Social Variables 12.6. Register 12.7. Community Grammars 12.8. Pidgins and Creoles 12.9. Conclusion. Exercises. Bibliography. Addenda to Bibliographies. Author Index. Subject Index