"Sustainable development" quickly became the universal goal for environmentalists in the 1990s, motivated by the 1988 Brundtland Report and the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio. When the time came to bring theory into reality, sustainable development revealed far more complexity than first anticipated.
To attain sustainable development in the full sense of the phrase"meeting present needs without compromising the resources needed for future societies"environmental and social concerns would need a constant presence in all major economic decisions.
The Cornerstone of Development: Balancing Environmental, Social, and Economic Imperatives profiles many of the first attempts to implement sustainable development initiatives worldwide. The model: Canada's experience with "multistakeholder" decision-making. Under the guidance of Canada's National Task Force on Environment and Economy, nationwide and provincial round tables brought government officials together with corporate officers to formulate sustainable development guidelines.
Authorized by the Canadian government to serve as an "Agenda 21 organization," the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) subsequently researched the feasibility of adapting the multistakeholder approach to the needs and practices of developing countries. The results are in these pages: valuable case histories from Africa, Latin America, Asia and Canada, each recounting the risks and benefits from integrating environmental, social and economic policies.
When IDRC members were asked for ways to address environmental sustainability, they had few examples to follow"and little evidence that such endeavors could be fulfilled. The research and problem-solving efforts they produced are now collected here, for the guidance of other environment/development balance programs worldwide.
Foreword"D. Runnalls and C. Pestieau
The Concept of Policy Integration
Reconciling Ecological, Economic, and Social Imperatives"J. Robinson and J. Tinker
Learning and Policy Integration"A.K. Bernard and G. Armstrong
Environmental Integration at an Electric Utility"D. DePape
Managing for Sustainability"S. Owen
Planning Act Reforms and Initiatives in Ontario, Canada"G. Penfold
Wetlands Management in Ghana"T. Anderson
Supplying Clean Water to the Citizens of Nairobi"P.M. Syagga
Sustainable Irrigation in the Arid Regions of India"V.S. Vyas
Integrated Research and Policies in East Asia"P.S. Intal, Jr.
Concertacion: Integrated Planning and Development in Peru"L. Soberon
Integrating Environmental, Social, and Economic Policies"S. Holtz
Acronyms and Abbreviations