When the guns are silenced, those who have survived armed conflict need food, water, shelter, the means to earn a living, and the promise of safety and a return to civil order. Meeting these needs while sustaining peace requires more than simply having governmental structures in place; it requires good governance.
Natural resources are essential to sustaining people and peace in post-conflict countries, but governance failures often jeopardize such efforts. This book examines the theory, practice, often surprising realities of post-conflict governance, natural resource management, and peacebuilding in fifty countries and territories. It includes thirty-nine chapters written by more than seventy researchers, diplomats, military personnel, and practitioners from governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental organizations. The book highlights the mutually reinforcing relationship between natural resource management and good governance.
Natural resource management is crucial to rebuilding governance and the rule of law, combating corruption, improving transparency and accountability, engaging disenfranchised populations, and building confidence after conflict. At the same time, good governance is essential for ensuring that natural resource management can meet immediate needs for post-conflict stability and development, while simultaneously laying the foundations for sustainable peace. Drawing on analysis of the close relationship between governance and natural resource management, the book explores lessons from past conflicts and ongoing reconstruction efforts; illustrates how those lessons may be applied to the formulation and implementation of more effective governance initiatives; and presents an emerging theoretical and practical framework for policy makers, researchers, practitioners, and students.
Governance, Natural Resources, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding is part of a global initiative to identify and analyze lessons in post-conflict peacebuilding and natural resource management. The project has generated six books of case studies and analyses, with contributions from practitioners, policy makers, and researchers. Other books in this series address.
Foreword by President Óscar Arias Sánchez, Costa Rica Natural resources and post-conflict governance Building a sustainable peace, Carl Bruch, Environmental Law Institute (USA), Carroll Muffett, Center for International Environmental Law (USA), Sandra S. Nichols, Environmental Law Institute (USA) Part 1: FRAMEWORKS for Peace Introduction 1. Reducing the risk of conflict recurrence: The relevance of natural resource management, Christian Webersik, University of Agder (Germany) , Marc Levy, Columbia University (USA) 2. Stepping stones to peace? Natural resource provisions in peace agreements, Simon J. A. Mason, Center for Security Studies, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland), Pilar Ramirez Gröbli, Center for Security Studies, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland), Damiano A. Sguaitamatti, Center for Security Studies, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland) 3. Considerations for determining when to include natural resources in peace agreements ending internal armed conflicts, Marcia A. Dawes, UN Department of Political Affairs (Chile) 4. Peacebuilding through natural resource management: The UN Peacebuilding Commission’s first five years, Matti Lehtonen, UN Environment Programme (Finland) 5. Preparing for peace: A case study of Darfur, Sudan, Margie Buchanan-Smith (UK), Brendan Bromwich, United Nations Environment Programme (UK) Part 2: peacekeepers, the military, and natural resources Introduction 6. Environmental experiences and developments in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Sophie Ravier, UN Department of Field Support (France), Anne-Cécile Vialle, United Nations Children’s Fund (France), Russ Doran, UN Department of Field Support (Australia), John Stokes, Harvard University (USA) 7. Crime, credibility, and effective peacekeeping: Lessons from the field, Annica Waleij, Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden) 8. Environmental stewardship in peace operations: The role of the military, Annica Waleij, Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden), Timothy G. Bosetti, U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USA), Russ Doran, UN Department of Field Support (Australia), Birgitta Liljedahl, Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden) 9. Taking the gun out of extraction: UN responses to the role of natural resources in conflicts, Mark B. Taylor, Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies, Mike Davis, Global Witness 10. Military-to-military cooperation on the environment and natural disasters: Engagement for peacebuilding, Geoffrey D. Dabelko, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (USA), Will Rogers, Center for a New American Security (USA) 11.Civil-military coordination and cooperation in peacebuilding and natural resource management: An enabling framework, challenges, and incremental progress , Melanne A. Civic, National Defense University (USA) Part 3: GOOD Governance Introduction 12.Burma’s ceasefire regime: Two decades of unaccountable natural resource exploitation, Kirk Talbott, Environmental Law Institute (ELI), Yuki Akimoto (Japan), Katrina Cuskelly (Australia) 12.Taming predatory elites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Regulation of property rights to adjust incentives and improve economic performance in the mining sector, Nicholas Garrett, Freie Universität Berlin (Germany) 13.Process and substance: Environmental law in post-conflict peacebuilding, Sandra S. Nichols, Environmental Law Institute (USA). Mishkat Al Moumin, Former Minister of Environment (Iraq) 14.Post-conflict environmental governance: Lessons from Rwanda, Roy Brooke, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (Canada), Richard Matthew, University of California Irvine (USA) 15.Corruption and natural resources in post-conflict transition , Christine Cheng, University of Oxford (Canada), Dominik Zaum, University of Reading (Germany) 16.Stopping the plunder of natural resources to provide for a sustainable peace in Côte d'Ivoire, Michel Yoboue, Publish What You Pay (Ivory Coast) 17. Sartor resartus: Liberian concession reviews and the prospects for effective internationalized solutions, K.W. James Rochow, Trust for Lead Poisoning Prevention (USA) 18. Social benefits in the Liberian forestry sector: An experiment in post-conflict institution building for resilience, John Waugh (USA), James Murombedzi, United Nations Development Program 19.Preventing violent conflict over natural resources: Lessons from an early action fund, Juan Dumas, Fundación Futuro Latinoamericano (Argentina) Part 4: Local Institutions and Marginalized Populations Introduction 20. Legal pluralism in post-conflict environments: Problem or opportunity for natural resource management?, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, International Food Policy Research Institute (USA), Rajendra Pradhan, International Food Policy Research Institute 21.The role of conservation in promoting sustainability and security in at-risk communities, Peter Zahler, World Conservation Society (USA), David Wilkie, World Conservation Society (USA), Michael Painter, World Conservation Society (USA), J. Carter Ingram, World Conservation Society (USA) 22.Integrating gender into post-conflict natural resource management , Njeri Karuru, University of Nairobi (Kenya), Louise H. Yeung, Environmental Law Institute (USA) 23. Indigenous peoples, natural resources, and peacebuilding in Colombia , Juan Mayr Maldonado, Former Minister of Environment of Colombia (Colombia), Luisz Olmedo Martínez, United Nations Development Program (Colombia) Part5: Transitional Justice and Accountability Introduction 24. Building momentum and constituencies for peace: The role of natural resources in transitional justice and peacebuilding , Emily E. Harwell, Natural Capital Advisors (Canada) 25.Peace through justice: International tribunals and accountability for wartime environmental wrongs , Anne-Cecile Vialle, United Nations Children’s Fund (France), Carl Bruch, Environmental Law Institute (USA), Reinhold Gallmetzer, International Criminal Court, Akiva Fishman, Environmental Law Institute (USA) 26.Legal liability for environmental damage: The United Nations Compensation Commission and the 1990-1991 Gulf War , Cymie Payne, University of California Berkeley (USA) 27.Reflections on the United Nations Compensation Commission experience, Lalanath de Silva, World Resources Institute (Sri Lanka) Part 6: Confidence Building Introduction 28. Environmental governance and peacebuilding in post-conflict Central America: Lessons from the Central American Commission for Environment and Development, Matthew Wilburn King, UPsidEO (USA), Marco Antonio González, Comisión Centroamericana de Ambiente y Dasarrollo (CCAD) (Nicaragua), Mauricio Castro-Salazar, Fundecooperacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible (El Salvador), Carlos Manuel Rodriguez, Conservation International (Costa Rica) 29. Promoting transboundary environmental cooperation in Central Asia: The Environment and Security Initiative in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, Saba Nordström, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (Sweden/Finland/Nepal) 30.The Perú and Ecuador peace park: One decade after the peace settlement, Yolanda Kakabadse, Fundación Futuro Latinoamericano (Ecuador), Jorge Caillaux, Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Ambiental (Peru), Juan Dumas, Fundación Futuro Latinoamericano (Argentina) 31.Transboundary collaboration in the Greater Virunga Landscape: From gorilla conservation to conflict-sensitive transboundary landscape management, Johannes Refisch, United Nations Environment Programme (Germany), Johann Jenson, United Nations Environment Programme Part 7: Integration of natural resources into other Post-Conflict Priorities Introduction 32. Consolidating peace through the "Aceh Green" strategy, Sadaf Lakhani, United Nations Development Program (UK) 33.Natural resource management and post-conflict settings: Programmatic evolution in a humanitarian and development agency, Jim Jarvie, Mercy Corps 34.Mainstreaming natural resources into post-conflict humanitarian and development action, Judy Oglethorpe, World Wildlife Fund US (UK), Anita Van Breda, World Wildlife Fund US (USA), Leah Kintner, World Wildlife Fund US (USA), Shubash Lohani, World Wildlife Fund US (Nepal), Owen Williams, World Wildlife Fund US (USA) 35.Using economic evaluation to integrate natural resource management into Rwanda's post-conflict poverty reduction strategy paper , Louise Wrist Sorensen (Denmark) 36.Mitigating natural resource conflicts through development projects: Lessons from World Bank experience in Nigeria, Sandra Ruckstuhl (USA) 37.Natural resources and peacebuilding: What role for the private sector?, Diana Klein, International Alert (Israel), Ulrike Joras, International Alert Part 8: lessons learned 38.Fueling conflict or facilitating peace: Lessons in post-conflict governance and natural resource management, Sandra S. Nichols, Environmental Law Institute (USA), Carroll Muffett, Center for International Environmental Law (USA), Carl Bruch, Environmental Law Institute (USA)