Making a fresh contribution to the political history of science, this book explores the connections between the science policies of three countries that each experienced considerable political upheaval in the twentieth century: Spain, Italy and Argentina. By focussing on these three countries, the contributors are able to present case studies that highlight the characteristics and specificities of the democratic and dictatorial political processes involved in the production of science and technology. The focus on dictatorship presents the opportunity to expand our knowledge -beyond the more extensive literature about science in Nazi Germany and Stalinist USSR -about the level of political involvement of scientists in non-democratic contexts and to what extent they act as politicians in different contexts. Key topics covered include the new forms of organization and institutionalization of science in the twentieth century; the involvement of scientific communities in the governance of science and its institutions; the role of ideology in scientific development; the scientific practices adopted by scientific communities in different contexts; and the characteristics of science and technology produced in these contexts.
Preface, Amparo Gómez, Antonio Fco. Canales and Brian Balmer; Science policy under democracy and dictatorship: an introductory essay, Amparo Gómez, Brian Balmer and Antonio Fco. Canales; The ‘social contract’ for Spanish science before the Civil War, Amparo Gómez; Spanish science: from the convergence with Europe to purge and exile, Francisco A. González Redondo; The reactionary utopia: the CSIC and Spanish imperial science, Antonio Fco. Canales; Broken science, scientists under suspicion. Neuroscience in Spain during the early years of the Franco dictatorship, Rafael Huertas; Cultures of research and the international relations of physics through Francoism: Spain at CERN, Xavier Roqué; The National Council for Research in the context of Fascist autarky, Roberto Maiocchi; Statistical theory, scientific rivalry and war politics in Fascist Italy (1939-1943), Jean-Guy Prévost; Science, military dictatorships and constitutional governments in Argentina, Pablo Miguel Jacovkis; Science policy in Argentina during the ‘Dirty War’, Diana Maffía; Appendix; Index.
Science, Technology and Culture, 1700-1945 focuses on the social, cultural, industrial and economic contexts of science and technology from the ‘scientific revolution’ up to the Second World War. Publishing lively, original, innovative research across a broad spectrum of subjects and genres by an international list of authors, the series has a global compass that concerns the development of modern science in all regions of the world. Subjects may range from close studies of particular sciences and problems to cultural and social histories of science, technology and biomedicine; accounts of scientific travel and exploration; transnational histories of scientific and technological change; monographs examining instruments, their makers and users; the material and visual cultures of science; contextual studies of institutions and of individual scientists, engineers and popularizers of science; and well-edited volumes of essays on themes in the field.