This book examines a neglected area of foreign-language teaching and learning: difficult and aggressive situations. The author presents the real-life experiences of language users and analyses how these individuals have dealt with confusion, impoliteness and hostility in target-language contexts in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom and within their home country. By constructing a student-centred pedagogical model around the data collected, the author considers the choices available to language learners in difficult situations, as well as tools for language learners to develop pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic resources.
1. Choice: Importance of face and stance
2. Facing up to difficult situations: confronting confusion
3. Impoliteness: positionality and adopting a stance
4. Hostile and aggressive situations: formulating a response
5. Pedagogy: raising awareness and stance-taking
Appendix 1: Questionnaire: Negative Incidents
Appendix 2. Questionnaire: Impolite / Rude Incidents
Appendix 3. Questionnaire: Hostile Incidents
The Routledge Research in Language Education series provides a platform for established and emerging scholars to present their latest research and discuss key issues in Language Education. This series welcomes books on all areas of language teaching and learning, including but not limited to language education policy and politics, multilingualism, literacy, L1, L2 or foreign language acquisition, curriculum, classroom practice, pedagogy, teaching materials, and language teacher education and development. Books in the series are not limited to the discussion of the teaching and learning of English only.