Applying the Rasch Model : Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences book cover
4th Edition

Applying the Rasch Model
Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences

ISBN 9780367141424
Published July 20, 2020 by Routledge
376 Pages 174 B/W Illustrations

FREE Standard Shipping
USD $64.95

Prices & shipping based on shipping country


Book Description

Recognised as the most influential publication in the field, ARM facilitates deep understanding of the Rasch model and its practical applications. The authors review the crucial properties of the model and demonstrate its use with examples across the human sciences. Readers will be able to understand and critically evaluate Rasch measurement research, perform their own Rasch analyses and interpret their results. The glossary and illustrations support that understanding, and the accessible approach means that it is ideal for readers without a mathematical background.

Highlights of the new edition include:

  • More learning tools to strengthen readers’ understanding including chapter introductions, boldfaced key terms, chapter summaries, activities and suggested readings.
  • Greater emphasis on the use of R packages; readers can download the R code from the Routledge website.
  • Explores the distinction between numerical values, quantity and units, to understand the measurement and the role of the Rasch logit scale (Chapter 4).
  • A new four-option data set from the IASQ (Instrumental Attitude towards Self-assessment Questionnaire) for the Rating Scale Model (RSM) analysis exemplar (Chapter 6).
  • Clarifies the relationship between Rasch measurement, path analysis and SEM, with a host of new examples of Rasch measurement applied across health sciences, education and psychology (Chapter 10).

Intended as a text for graduate courses in measurement, item response theory, (advanced) research methods or quantitative analysis taught in psychology, education, human development, business, and other social and health sciences. Professionals in these areas will also appreciate the book’s accessible introduction.

Table of Contents



Notes on This Volume

About the Authors

  1. Why Measurement Is Fundamental
  2. Children Can Construct Measures

    Interval Scales v. Ratio Scales: A Conceptual Explanation

    Statistics and/or Measurement

    Why Fundamental Measurement?

    Derived Measures

    Conjoint Measurement

     The Rasch Model for Measurement

     A More Suitable Analogy for Measurement in the Human Sciences

     In Conclusion


  3. Important Principles of Measurement Made Explicit
  4. An example: "By How Much?"

    Moving From Observations to Measures


  5. Basic Principles of the Rasch Model
  6. The Pathway Analogy

    A Basic Framework for Measurement

    The Rasch Model


  7. Building a Set of Items for Measurement
  8. The Nature of the Data

    Analyzing Dichotomous Data: The BLOT

    A Simple Rasch Summary: The Item Pathway

    Item Statistics

    Item Fit

    The Wright Map


    Comparing Persons and Items


    Extended Understanding

    The Problem of Guessing

    Difficulty, Ability, and Fit

    The Theory–Practice Dialog


  9. Invariance: A Crucial Property of Scientific Measurement
  10. Person and Item Invariance

    Common-Item Linking

    Please Keep in Mind

    Anchoring Item Values

    Vertical Scaling

    Common-Person Linking

    Invariance of Person Estimates across Tests: Concurrent Validity

    The PRTIII-Pendulum

    Common-Person Linking: BLOT & PRTIII

    The Theory–Practice Dialog

    Measurement Invariance: Where It Really Matters

    Failures of Invariance: DIF

    Differential Rater Functioning

    DIF: Not Just a Problem, but an Opportunity


  11. Measurement Using Likert Scales
  12. The Rasch Model for Polytomous Data

    Analyzing Rating Scale Data: The Instrumental Attitude towards Self-Assessment Questionnaire


    Extended Understanding


  13. The Partial Credit Rasch Model
  14. Clinical Interview Analysis: A Rasch-Inspired Breakthrough

    Scoring Interview Transcripts

    Partial Credit Model Results


    The Theory–Practice Dialog


    Extended Understanding

    Point–Measure Correlations

    Fit Statistics

    Dimensionality: Primary Components Factor Analysis


  15. Measuring Facets Beyond Ability and Difficulty
  16. A Basic Introduction to the Many-Facets Rasch Model

    Why Not Use Interrater Reliability?

    Relations Among the Rasch Family of Models

    Data Specifications of the Many-Facets Rasch Model

    Rating Creativity of Junior Scientists

    8.6 Many-Facets Analysis of Eighth-Grade Writing


    Extended Understanding

    Rasch Measurement of Facets Beyond Rater Effects


  17. Making Measures, Setting Standards, and Rasch Regression
  18. Creating a Measure from Existing Data: The RMPFS (Zi Yan, EdUHK)

    Method: Data 

    Physical Fitness Indicators

    Data Analysis

    Seven Criteria to Investigate the Quality of Physical Fitness Indicators

    Results and Discussion

    Optimising Response Categories

    Influence of Underfitting Persons on the RMPFS

    Properties of the RMPFS With Subsamples

    Age Dependent or Age Related?

    The Final Version of RMPFS

    Objective Standard Setting: The OSS Model (Gregory Stone, U Toledo)

    Early Definitions

    The Objective Standard Setting Models

    Objective Standard Setting for Dichotomous Examinations

    Objective Standard Setting for Judge-Mediated Examinations

    Fair Standards, Not Absolute Values

    Rasch Regression (Svetlana Beltyukova, U Toledo)

    Predicting Physician Assistant Faculty Intention to Leave Academia

    Rasch Regression Using the Anchored Formulation

    Rasch Regression: Alternative Approaches



  19. The Rasch Model Applied Across the Human Sciences
  20. Rasch Measurement in Health Sciences

    Optimising an Existing Instrument: The NIHSS and a Central Role for PCA

    Creating a Short Form of an Existing Instrument: The FSQ


    Theory Guides Assessment Revisions: The PEP–S8

    Applications in Education and Psychology

    Rasch Measures as Grist for the Analytical Mill

    Rasch Gain Calculations: Racking and Stacking

    Rasch Learning Gain Calculations: The CCI

    Racking and Stacking

    Stacking Can Be Enough: UPAM

    Sub- Test Structure Informs Scoring Models

    Applications to Classroom Testing

    Can Rasch Measurement Help S.S. Stevens?

    Using Rasch Measures with Path Analysis (SEM Framework)

    Rasch Person Measures Used in a Partial Least Squares (PLS) Framework

    And Those Rasch Measurement SEs?

    Can We Really Combine SEM and Rasch Models?



  21. Rasch Modeling Applied: Rating Scale Design
  22. Rating Scale Design

    Category Frequencies and Average Measures

    Thresholds and Category Fit

    Revising a Rating Scale

    An Example

    Guidelines for Collapsing Categories

    Problems With Negatively Worded Items

    The Invariance of the Measures across Groups


  23. Rasch Model Requirements: Model Fit and Unidimensionality
  24. The Data, the Model, and the Residuals


    Fit Statistics

    Expectations of Variation

    Fit, Misfit, and Interpretation

    Fit: Issues for Resolution

    Principal Components Analysis of Rasch Residuals: The BLOT as an Exemplar

    One Dimension, Two Dimensions, Three Dimensions, More?

    Extended Understanding

    A Further Investigation: BLOT and PRTIII


  25. A Synthetic Overview

          Additive Conjoint Measurement (ACM)

          True Score Theory, Latent Traits, and Item Response Theory

          Would You Like an Interval Scale With That?

          Model Assumptions and Measurement Requirements

          Construct Validity

          The Rasch Model and Progress of Science

          Back to the Beginning and Back to the End


Appendix A: Getting Started

Appendix B: Technical Aspects of the Rasch Model

Appendix C: Going All the Way


Author Index

Subject Index

View More



Trevor G. Bond is currently Adjunct Professor at the College of Arts, Society and Education at James Cook University, Australia.

Zi Yan is Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the Education University of Hong Kong.

Moritz Heene is Full Professor of Learning Sciences Research Methodologies (i.e., Quantitative Methods) at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.


From a previous edition:

"The tiresome debate about Rasch vs. IRT is over  if you want to construct valid measurements from uncertain observations you need to understand and learn how to use Rasch measurement. Bond and Fox is your huckleberry read it and get to work!" – Robert W. Massof, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA

"Bond & Fox's book is a must read for anyone interested in measurement. This book is my go-to for introducing graduate students to the Rasch model." Kelly D. Bradley, University of Kentucky, USA

"The authors have successfully made sophisticated measurement theory into feasible practice for practitioners by providing clear and intuitive explanations, numerous examples, and nice computer outputs. It is a textbook that I have used and will continue to use in the future." Wen Chung Wang, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong

"The Rasch model represents modern measurement theory at its best … Rasch models are used around the world to create psychometrically defensible scales and tests. Bond and Fox provide an accessible introduction to the Rasch model that describes the logic and essential importance of fundamental measurement in the human sciences." George Engelhard, Jr., The University of Georgia, USA