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Aquatic Effects of Acidic Deposition





ISBN 9781566704168
Published March 15, 2000 by CRC Press
392 Pages

 
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Book Description

The completion of the initial phase of the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) in 1990 marked the end of the largest environmental research and assessment effort to that time. The resulting series of 27 State of Science and Technology (SOS/T) Reports and the NAPAP Integrated Assessment represent a decade of work by hundreds of scientists, engineers, and economists. Since then, many new, significant, more refined studies on acid deposition have been completed and published, considerably broadening knowledge in this area.

Aquatic Effects of Acidic Deposition summarizes and synthesizes these major advancements, particularly those topics that are directly relevant to policy making. It offers complete coverage of recent findings that have substantiated, deepened, modified, or in some cases, revolutionized scientific understanding in environmental research.

This resource addresses the quantification of effects and recent developments in predictive modeling capabilities. It covers virtually all aspects of nitrogen effects research, the importance of natural sources of acidity, the influence of land use and landscape change on drainage water chemistry, and the role of short-term episodic events.

This comprehensive update thoroughly illustrates the progression and refinement in the field. Aquatic Effects of Acidic Deposition helps you make educated decisions based on the most recent, reliable data for air pollution sensitivities, effects, remediation, and future research.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction -- 1.1 1990 NAPAP Reports and Integrated Assessment -- 1.2 Scope -- 1.3 Goals and Objectives -- 1.4 Outline of State of Science Update -- 2 Background and Approach -- 2.1 Overview -- 2.1.1 Atmospheric Inputs -- 2.1.2 Sensitivity to Acidification -- 2.2 Chemical Response Variables of Concern -- 2.2.1 Sulfur -- 2.2.2 Nitrogen -- 2.2.3 Acid Neutralizing Capacity -- 2.2.4 pH -- 2.2.5 Base Cations -- 2.2.6 Aluminum -- 2.2.7 Biological Effects -- 2.3 Monitoring -- 2.4 Historical Water Quality Assessment Techniques -- 2.4.1 Historical Measurements -- 2.4.2 Paleolimnological Reconstructions -- 2.4.3 Empirical Relationships and Ion Ratios -- 2.5 Models -- 2.5.1 Empirical Models -- 2.5.2 Dynamic Models -- 3 Chronic Acidification -- 3.1 Characteristics of Sensitive Systems -- 3.2 Causes of Acidification -- 3.2.1 Sulfur -- 3.2.2 Organic Acidity -- 3.2.3 Nitrogen -- 3.2.4 Base Cation Depletion -- 3.2.5 Land Use -- 3.2.6 Climate -- 3.2.7 Fire -- 3.2.8 Hydrology -- 3.3 Effects of Acidification -- 3.3.1 Aluminum -- 3.3.2 Effects on Aquatic Biota -- 3.3.3 Effects on Amphibians -- 4 Extent and Magnitude of Surface Water Acidification -- 4.1 Northeast -- 4.1.1 Monitoring Studies -- 4.1.2 Paleolimnological Studies -- 4.1.3 Experimental Manipulation -- 4.1.4 Model Simulations -- 4.2 Appalachian Mountains -- 4.2.1 Monitoring Studies -- 4.2.2 Model Simulations -- 4.3 Florida -- 4.3.1 Monitoring Studies -- 4.3.2 Paleolimnological Studies -- 4.3.3 Model Simulations -- 4.4 Upper Midwest -- 4.4.1 Monitoring Studies -- 4.4.2 Paleolimnological Studies -- 4.4.3 Experimental Manipulation -- 4.4.4 Model Simulations -- 4.5 West -- 4.5.1 Monitoring Studies -- 4.5.2 Paleolimnological Studies -- 4.5.3 Model Simulations -- 5 Chemical Dose-Response Relationships and Critical Loads -- 5.1 Quantification of Chemical Dose-Response Relationships -- 5.1.1 Measured Changes in Acid-Base Chemistry -- 5.1.2 Space-for-Time Substitution -- 5.1.3 Paleolimnological Inferences of Dose-Response -- 5.1.4 Model Estimates of Dose-Response -- 5.2 Critical Loads -- 5.2.1 Background -- 5.2.2 Progress in Europe -- 5.2.3 Progress in the U.S. and Canada -- 5.2.4 Establishment of Standards for Sulfur and Nitrogen -- 6 Episodic Acidification -- 6.1 Background and Characteristics of Sensitive Systems -- 6.2 Causes -- 6.2.1 Natural Processes -- 6.2.2 Anthropogenic Effects -- 6.3 Extent and Magnitude -- 6.4 Biological Impacts -- 7 Nitrogen Dynamics -- 7.1 Nitrogen Cycle -- 7.2 Environmental Effects -- 7.3 Nitrogen in Surface Waters -- 8 Experimental Manipulation Studies -- 8.1 Whole-System Nitrogen and /or Sulfur Enrichment Experimental Manipulations -- 8.1.1 Gardsjon, Sweden -- 8.1.2 Sogndal, Norway -- 8.1.3 Lake Skjervatjern, Norway -- 8.1.4 Aber, Wales -- 8.1.5 Klosterhede, Denmark -- 8.1.6 Bear Brook, ME -- 8.2 Whole-System Nitrogen Exclusion (Roof) Studies -- 8.2.1 Gardsjon, Sweden -- 8.2.2 Ysselsteyn and Speuld, Netherlands -- 8.2.3 Klosterhede, Denmark -- 8.2.4 Soiling, Germany -- 8.2.5 Risdalsheia, Norway -- 8.3 Climatic Interactions -- 8.4 Results and Implications -- 9 Predictive Capabilities -- 9.1 Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC) -- 9.1.1 Background and General Structure as Used -- for the NAPAP 1990 Integrated Assessment -- 9.1.2 Recent Modifications to the MAGIC Model -- 9.1.2.1 Regional Aggregation and Background Sulfate -- 9.1.2.2 Organic Acids -- 9.1.2.3 Aluminum -- 9.1.2.4 Nitrogen -- 9.1.3 Cumulative Impacts of Changes to the MAGIC Model -- 9.1.4 MAGIC Model Testing and Confirmation Studies -- 9.1.4.1 Lake Skjervatjern (HUMEX) -- 9.1.4.2 Risdalsheia (RAIN) -- 9.1.4.3 Bear Brook (WMP) -- 9.1.5 Evaluation of MAGIC Projections -- 9.2 Nitrogen Models -- 10 Case Study: Adirondack Park, NY -- 10.1 Background and Available Data -- 10.1.1 ELS-I -- 10.1.2 ALSC -- 10.1.3 ELS-II -- 10.1.4 DDRP -- 10.1.5 PIRLA -- 10.1.6 ALTM -- 10.1.7 ERP -- 10.2 Watershed History -- 10.3 Lake-Water Chemistry -- 10.4 Organic Acidity -- 10.5 Role of Nitrogen in Acidification Processes -- 10.6 Role of Landscape and Disturbance -- in Acidification Processes -- 10.7 Overall Assessment -- 11 Case Study: Class I Areas in the Mountainous West -- 11.1 Background -- 11.2 Sierra Nevada -- 11.2.1 Atmospheric Deposition -- 11.2.2 Surface Water Chemistry -- 11.2.3 Seasonality and Episodic Processes -- 11.2.4 Weathering and Cation Exchange -- 11.3 Rocky Mountains -- 11.3.1 Glacier National Park -- 11.3.2 Yellowstone National Park -- 11.3.3 Grand Teton National Park -- 11.3.4 Rocky Mountain National Park -- 12 Conclusions and Future Research Needs -- Definitions -- References -- Index.

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