Despite being an accepted construct in traffic and transport psychology, the precise nature of behavioural adaptation, including its causes and consequences, has not yet been established within the road safety community. A comprehensive collection of recent literature, Behavioural Adaptation and Road Safety: Theory, Evidence, and Action explores behavioural adaptation in road users. It examines behavioural adaptation within the context of historical and theoretical perspectives, and puts forth tangible—and practical—solutions that can effectively address adverse behavioural adaptation to road safety interventions before it occurs.
Edited by Christina Rudin-Brown and Samantha Jamson, with chapters authored by leading road safety experts in driver psychology and behaviour, the book introduces the concept of behavioural adaptation and details its more relevant issues. It reviews the definition of behavioural adaptation that was put forward by the OECD in 1990 and then puts this definition through its paces, identifying where it may be lacking and how it might be improved. This sets the context for the remaining chapters which take the OECD definition as their starting points.
The book discusses the various theories and models of behavioural adaptation and more general theories of driver behaviour developed during the last half century. It provides examples of the "evidence" for behavioural adaptation—instances in which behavioural adaptation arose as a consequence of the introduction of safety countermeasures. The book then focuses on the internal, "human" element and considers countermeasures that might be used to limit the development of behavioural adaptation in various road user groups. The book concludes with practical tools and methodologies to address behavioural adaptation in research and design, and to limit the potential negative effects before they happen.
Supplying easy-to-understand, accessible solutions that can be implemented early on in a road safety intervention’s design or conception phase, the chapters represent the most extensive compilation of literature relating to behavioural adaptation and its consequences since the 1990 OECD report. The book brings together earlier theories of behavioural adaptation with more recent theories in the area and combines them with practical advice, methods, and tangible solutions that can minimise the potential negative impact of behavioural adaptation on road user safety and address it before it occurs. It is an essential component of any road safety library, and should be of particular relevance to researchers, practitioners, designers, and policymakers who are interested in maximizing safety while at the same time encouraging innovation and excellence in road transport-related design.
Table of Contents
Introduction, Christina M. Rudin-Brown and Samantha L. Jamson
Definition of Behavioural Adaptation, Risto Kulmala and Pirkko Rämä
Early theories of Behavioural Adaptation, Oliver Carsten
Contemporary Models of Behavioural Adaptation, Ben Lewis-Evans, Dick de Waard, and Karel A. Brookhuis
Homeostasis Drives Behavioural Adaptation, Gerald J.S. Wilde
Updating Risk Allostasis Theory to Better Understand Behavioural Adaptation, Neale A.D. Kinnear and Shaun Helman
Manifestation of Behavioural Adaptation
Behavioural Adaptation to Roadway Engineering Countermeasures, A. Richard A. van der Horst
Behavioural Adaptation to Roadway Intelligent Transport Systems, Marieke H. Martens
Behavioural Adaptation to In-Vehicle Intelligent Transport Systems, Christopher J.D. Patten
Behavioural Adaptation to Road Safety Policy, Christina M. Rudin-Brown, Brian Jonah, and Paul Boase
Behavioural Adaptation and the Human Element
The Psychology of Behavioural Adaptation, Truls Vaa
Behavioural Adaptation and Driver Distraction, Kristie L. Young and Michael Regan
Behavioural Adaptation and Novice Drivers Teresa M. Senserrick and Eve Mitsopoulos-Rubens
Is There a Biological Basis for Behavioural Adaptation? Christina M. Rudin-Brown and Paul J. Fletcher
The Role of Acceptance in Behavioural Adaptation, Samantha L. Jamson
Behavioural Adaptation and Older Drivers, Sjaan Koppel and Judith L. Charlton
Behavioural Adaptation and Unintended Consequences: Examples from Commercial Vehicle Operations, Richard J. Hanowski
Behavioural Adaptation in Action
Behavioural Adaptation: Methodological and Measurement Issues, Michael P. Manser, Janet Creaser, and Linda Ng Boyle
Designing for Behavioural Adaptation, Mark S. Young and Oliver Carsten
The impact of Behavioural Adaptation on Cost-Benefit Analyses, Rune Elvik
Applying the Risk-Homeostatic Dynamic to Improvement of Safety and Life-Style-Dependent Health, Gerald J.S. Wilde
Implications of Behavioural Adaptation for Road Safety Strategies, Fred Wegman
Conclusions and Future Directions, Samantha L. Jamson and Christina M. Rudin-Brown
Christina M. Rudin-Brown, Ph,D. is a Senior Research Fellow with the Human Factors team at Monash University Accident Research Centre in Melbourne, Australia. She researches driver behavior and the expression of behavioral adaptation to in-vehicle intelligent transport systems.
Samantha L. Jamson, Ph.D. is a Principal Research Fellow and Chartered Psychologist at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, UK. She is a researcher specializing in human factors and road safety.
"… an important collection of essays for anyone who wants to understand more about road safety policy. Behavioural change is a key to achieving further casualty reductions and improvements in safety overall. How do we help people to comply with safe behaviours and reduce risk both to themselves and to others? That is what this book has tried to set out to do."
—Robert Gifford, Director, the Gifford Partnership, Milton Keynes, UK
"… an important contribution to the advancement of evidence-based road safety delivery."
—Ezra Hauer, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto (retired)
"… a comprehensive account of how people adapt to safety measures imposed upon them, typically in unexpected ways which often lessen the measure’s effectiveness. It urges safety managers to predict behavioral adaption before implementation and provides a method for doing so which should prove invaluable."
—Ian Johnston, Formerly Monash University Accident Research Centre (retired), now Principal of Ian Johnston Transport Safety Pty Ltd.