1st Edition

Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils Assessment and Reclamation

By Robert N. Carrow, Ronny R. Duncan Copyright 2012
    496 Pages 20 Color & 22 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The complex issues involved in the management of saline and sodic turfgrass soils are enough to perplex even the most experienced site manager — there is no "silver bullet" amendment, treatment, or grass for salinity management. Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: Assessment and Reclamation presents comprehensive scientific principles and detailed, practical management and assessment recommendations for turfgrass and landscape sites.

    The authors use the Best Management Practices (BMPs) concept, considered the gold-standard management approach for any individual environmental issue, since it is a whole ecosystem (holistic), science-based salinity management approach that allows all possible management options to be considered and implemented on a site-specific basis. They identify BMP strategies, including irrigation system design; irrigation scheduling and salinity leaching; chemical, physical, and biological amendments; cultivation; topdressing; soil modification; sand-capping; surface and subsurface drainage options; nutritional practices; additional cultural practices; and ongoing monitoring. The book presents emerging challenges, technology, and concepts that address integration of salinity management into comprehensive site environmental or sustainable management systems, use of halophytic turfgrasses for non-traditional purposes, integration of geospatial and geostatistical concepts and technology, and integration of new sensor technology into daily management paradigms.

    Outlining a holistic BMP approach, the book incorporates scientific principles and practical management recommendations and details specific salinity challenges and the logic behind each BMP strategy for salinity management, with an emphasis on actual field problems. The book is formatted for flexible use, with stand-alone chapters that include outlines for quick review of a topic for those requiring only a basic understanding as well as in-depth discussions of the science and practical aspects for those seeking a more rigorous treatment. It supplies a single source for all the information required to identify and manage diverse types of salinity stresses.

    Basics of Salt-Affected Sites
    Overview and Classification of Salt-Affected Sites
    Scope of Salinity Problems
    Successful Salinity Management Approach

    Saline Soils
    Overview Of Saline Soil Problems
    Total Soluble Salts (Total Salinity) Problems
    Ion Toxicities and Problem Ions
    Nutrients and Ion Imbalances
    Managing Saline Soils

    Sodic, Saline-Sodic, and Alkaline Soils

    Sodic Soil Problems
    Saline-Sodic Soils
    Acid-Sulfate Soils

    Salinity Soil Tests and Interpretation
    Basics of Soil Sampling and Testing
    Salt-Affected Soil Test Packages
    Field Monitoring of Soil Salinity

    Routine Soil Test Methods
    Soil Testing
    SLAN Approach, Extractants, and Interpretation
    BCSR Approach, CEC Measurement, and Interpretation
    Water Extractable (SPE, Dilute) Nutrients/Ions
    Understanding the Soil Test Report

    Irrigation Water Quality Tests, Interpretation, and Selection
    Water Quality Testing
    General Water Quality Characteristics
    Total Soluble Salts (Total Salinity)
    Sodium Permeability Hazard
    Specific Ion Impact (Root Injury; Shoot Accumulation Injury)
    Direct Foliage Injury And Miscellaneous Problems
    Trace Elements
    Irrigation Water Selection
    Summary Table

    Plant Analysis for Turfgrass

    Theory and Practice of Plant Analyses
    Sample Preparation
    Analysis of Sample
    Interpretation and Recommendations of Test Results

    Assessment for Salt Movement, Additions, and Retention
    Assessing Soil Physical Properties
    Drainage Assessment for Drainage Impediments
    Salinity Disposal Options
    Restricting Salt Additions
    Hydro-Geological Assessment for Protection of Surface and Ground Waters

    Selection of Turfgrass and Landscape Plants
    Plant Genetic and Physiological Responses to Salinity

    Turfgrass Salinity Tolerance
    Salinity Tolerance Mechanisms
    Landscape Plants and Salinity Tolerance

    Irrigation System Design and Maintenance for Poor Water Quality
    Irrigation System Distribution Efficiency is Critical on Salt-Affected Sites
    System Design Considerations for Managing Poor Quality Water
    Irrigation System Distribution Uniformity (Water Audit)
    Sites With Poorly Designed Irrigation Systems

    Irrigation Scheduling and Salinity Leaching
    Routine Irrigation Scheduling – Basics
    Factors Affecting Salinity Leaching
    Maintenance Leaching and Leaching Requirement (LR)
    Reclamation Leaching
    Pulse Irrigation and Other Water Application Methods
    Enhancing Effectiveness of Salt Leaching – Summary
    Salinity Management During Establishment

    Selection of Amendments
    Overview of Remediation Approaches in Sodic Situations
    Calcium Sources
    Acid Forming Materials + Lime Source
    Organic Amendments for Sodic Soil Reclamation

    Amendment Application Options and Guidelines
    Amendment Application – Overview
    Irrigation Water Acidification
    Gypsum Requirement – Sodic Soils and Irrigation Water Injection
    Irrigation Water Blending and Salt Loads

    Cultivation, Topdressing, and Soil Modification
    Soil Physical Problems – Overview
    Cultivation on Saline and Sodic Soils – Guidelines
    Soil Modification

    Drainage and Sand-Capping
    Drainage and Salinity
    Surface Drainage
    Subsurface Drainage
    Sand-Capping Salt-Affected Sites

    Nutritional Practices on Saline and Sodic Sites
    Nutrient/Ion Rich Irrigation Water – Challenges
    Monitoring Nutritional Status: Proactive or Reactive
    Saline Irrigation Water Nutritional Considerations
    Products, Labels, and Recommendations

    Additional Cultural Practices

    Salinity and Associated Stresses on a Site
    Environmental Challenges and Management
    Traffic Stresses and Management
    Additional Amendments for Salinity Management
    Greens Management Considerations
    Biotic Stress X Salinity Interactions

    Proactive Monitoring of Progress
    Assessing Progress in BMP Salinity Management
    Practical Considerations for on-Going Monitoring Programs
    Criteria for Proactive Monitoring

    Sustainable/Environmental Management Systems
    Sustainable Environmental Management
    Components of a Sustainable/EMS Plan on Salt-Affected Sites
    Common Sense Approach to Long Term Sustainability

    Reclamation, Drainage Water Reuse Schemes, and Halophytic Forage Sites
    Non-Traditional Uses of Halophytic Turfgrasses
    Reclamation and Site Assessment
    Grass Selection Issues
    Establishment Challenges and Methods
    Management Challenges and Considerations



    Robert N. Carrow, Ronny R. Duncan

    "This book is the latest from Drs. Carrow and Duncan, who have published and lectured extensively on soil salinity and sodicity issues and the management of such soils over the past 15 years or so. … provides a comprehensive coverage of the nominated topic with twenty chapters organized sequentially under five section headings. … Throughout the book, the authors are to be commended for highlighting links to related chapters and parts thereof. … For both consultants and academics, there is much to like about this book. … this is a book that many soil scientists and agronomists dealing with salt-affected sites the world over will find extremely useful, and one that we can wholeheartedly recommend for their bookshelves."
    . S. Loch, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, and R. J. Loch, Landloch Pty Ltd, Toowoomba, Australia, in Grass and Forage Science, 68, 606-607, 2013

    "Drs. Carrow and Duncan have created an update to their previous book published in 1998 entitled Salt-Affected Turfgrass Sites. That book has been a staple for those studying plant and soil sciences relating to turfgrass management … This new book includes greatly expanded sections on the basics of salt-affected sites, soil and water testing, soil chemistry and physical properties, plant responses, site management and reclamation. … What could be a very densely written book packed with jargon is a reference that is a good combination of technical information and practical application. This makes the text usable by scientists in turfgrass management and practitioners in the field."
    Paul G. Johnson, Vadose Zone Journal, November 2012

    "Using the ‘best management practices’ (BMP5) concept, their new book examines the complex issues around salinity management. presenting comprehensive scientific principles and detailing practical management and assessment recommendations for turfgrass and landscape sites. Their overriding message is that there is no ‘silver bullet’ amendment, treatment, or grass tor salinity management and that only a holistic BMPs approach will be successful and sustainable."