Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: Assessment and Reclamation, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils

Assessment and Reclamation, 1st Edition

By Robert N. Carrow, Ronny R. Duncan

CRC Press

496 pages | 20 Color Illus. | 22 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2011-09-12
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The complex issues involved in the management of saline and sodic turfgrass soils are enough to perplex even the most experienced site manager — there is no "silver bullet" amendment, treatment, or grass for salinity management. Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: Assessment and Reclamation presents comprehensive scientific principles and detailed, practical management and assessment recommendations for turfgrass and landscape sites.

The authors use the Best Management Practices (BMPs) concept, considered the gold-standard management approach for any individual environmental issue, since it is a whole ecosystem (holistic), science-based salinity management approach that allows all possible management options to be considered and implemented on a site-specific basis. They identify BMP strategies, including irrigation system design; irrigation scheduling and salinity leaching; chemical, physical, and biological amendments; cultivation; topdressing; soil modification; sand-capping; surface and subsurface drainage options; nutritional practices; additional cultural practices; and ongoing monitoring. The book presents emerging challenges, technology, and concepts that address integration of salinity management into comprehensive site environmental or sustainable management systems, use of halophytic turfgrasses for non-traditional purposes, integration of geospatial and geostatistical concepts and technology, and integration of new sensor technology into daily management paradigms.

Outlining a holistic BMP approach, the book incorporates scientific principles and practical management recommendations and details specific salinity challenges and the logic behind each BMP strategy for salinity management, with an emphasis on actual field problems. The book is formatted for flexible use, with stand-alone chapters that include outlines for quick review of a topic for those requiring only a basic understanding as well as in-depth discussions of the science and practical aspects for those seeking a more rigorous treatment. It supplies a single source for all the information required to identify and manage diverse types of salinity stresses.


"This book is the latest from Drs. Carrow and Duncan, who have published and lectured extensively on soil salinity and sodicity issues and the management of such soils over the past 15 years or so. … provides a comprehensive coverage of the nominated topic with twenty chapters organized sequentially under five section headings. … Throughout the book, the authors are to be commended for highlighting links to related chapters and parts thereof. … For both consultants and academics, there is much to like about this book. … this is a book that many soil scientists and agronomists dealing with salt-affected sites the world over will find extremely useful, and one that we can wholeheartedly recommend for their bookshelves."

—D. S. Loch, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, and R. J. Loch, Landloch Pty Ltd, Toowoomba, Australia, in Grass and Forage Science, 68, 606-607, 2013

"Drs. Carrow and Duncan have created an update to their previous book published in 1998 entitled Salt-Affected Turfgrass Sites. That book has been a staple for those studying plant and soil sciences relating to turfgrass management … This new book includes greatly expanded sections on the basics of salt-affected sites, soil and water testing, soil chemistry and physical properties, plant responses, site management and reclamation. … What could be a very densely written book packed with jargon is a reference that is a good combination of technical information and practical application. This makes the text usable by scientists in turfgrass management and practitioners in the field."

Paul G. Johnson,Vadose Zone Journal, November 2012

"Using the ‘best management practices’ (BMP5) concept, their new book examines the complex issues around salinity management. presenting comprehensive scientific principles and detailing practical management and assessment recommendations for turfgrass and landscape sites. Their overriding message is that there is no ‘silver bullet’ amendment, treatment, or grass tor salinity management and that only a holistic BMPs approach will be successful and sustainable."


Table of Contents


Basics of Salt-Affected Sites

Overview and Classification of Salt-Affected Sites


Scope of Salinity Problems

Successful Salinity Management Approach

Saline Soils

Overview Of Saline Soil Problems

Total Soluble Salts (Total Salinity) Problems

Ion Toxicities and Problem Ions

Nutrients and Ion Imbalances

Managing Saline Soils

Sodic, Saline-Sodic, and Alkaline Soils

Sodic Soil Problems

Saline-Sodic Soils

Acid-Sulfate Soils


Salinity Soil Tests and Interpretation

Basics of Soil Sampling and Testing

Salt-Affected Soil Test Packages

Field Monitoring of Soil Salinity

Routine Soil Test Methods

Soil Testing

SLAN Approach, Extractants, and Interpretation

BCSR Approach, CEC Measurement, and Interpretation

Water Extractable (SPE, Dilute) Nutrients/Ions

Understanding the Soil Test Report

Irrigation Water Quality Tests, Interpretation, and Selection

Water Quality Testing

General Water Quality Characteristics

Total Soluble Salts (Total Salinity)

Sodium Permeability Hazard

Specific Ion Impact (Root Injury; Shoot Accumulation Injury)

Direct Foliage Injury And Miscellaneous Problems


Trace Elements

Irrigation Water Selection

Summary Table

Plant Analysis for Turfgrass

Theory and Practice of Plant Analyses


Sample Preparation

Analysis of Sample

Interpretation and Recommendations of Test Results

Assessment for Salt Movement, Additions, and Retention

Assessing Soil Physical Properties

Drainage Assessment for Drainage Impediments

Salinity Disposal Options

Restricting Salt Additions

Hydro-Geological Assessment for Protection of Surface and Ground Waters


Selection of Turfgrass and Landscape Plants

Plant Genetic and Physiological Responses to Salinity

Turfgrass Salinity Tolerance

Salinity Tolerance Mechanisms

Landscape Plants and Salinity Tolerance

Irrigation System Design and Maintenance for Poor Water Quality

Irrigation System Distribution Efficiency is Critical on Salt-Affected Sites

System Design Considerations for Managing Poor Quality Water

Irrigation System Distribution Uniformity (Water Audit)

Sites With Poorly Designed Irrigation Systems

Irrigation Scheduling and Salinity Leaching

Routine Irrigation Scheduling – Basics

Factors Affecting Salinity Leaching

Maintenance Leaching and Leaching Requirement (LR)

Reclamation Leaching

Pulse Irrigation and Other Water Application Methods

Enhancing Effectiveness of Salt Leaching – Summary

Salinity Management During Establishment

Selection of Amendments

Overview of Remediation Approaches in Sodic Situations

Calcium Sources

Acid Forming Materials + Lime Source

Organic Amendments for Sodic Soil Reclamation


Amendment Application Options and Guidelines

Amendment Application – Overview

Irrigation Water Acidification

Gypsum Requirement – Sodic Soils and Irrigation Water Injection

Irrigation Water Blending and Salt Loads

Cultivation, Topdressing, and Soil Modification

Soil Physical Problems – Overview

Cultivation on Saline and Sodic Soils – Guidelines


Soil Modification

Drainage and Sand-Capping

Drainage and Salinity

Surface Drainage

Subsurface Drainage

Sand-Capping Salt-Affected Sites

Nutritional Practices on Saline and Sodic Sites

Nutrient/Ion Rich Irrigation Water – Challenges

Monitoring Nutritional Status: Proactive or Reactive

Saline Irrigation Water Nutritional Considerations

Products, Labels, and Recommendations


Additional Cultural Practices

Salinity and Associated Stresses on a Site

Environmental Challenges and Management

Traffic Stresses and Management

Additional Amendments for Salinity Management

Greens Management Considerations

Biotic Stress X Salinity Interactions

Proactive Monitoring of Progress

Assessing Progress in BMP Salinity Management

Practical Considerations for on-Going Monitoring Programs

Criteria for Proactive Monitoring


Sustainable/Environmental Management Systems

Sustainable Environmental Management

Components of a Sustainable/EMS Plan on Salt-Affected Sites

Common Sense Approach to Long Term Sustainability


Reclamation, Drainage Water Reuse Schemes, and Halophytic Forage Sites

Non-Traditional Uses of Halophytic Turfgrasses

Reclamation and Site Assessment

Grass Selection Issues

Establishment Challenges and Methods

Management Challenges and Considerations



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply