Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils : Assessment and Reclamation book cover
1st Edition

Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils
Assessment and Reclamation

ISBN 9781439814741
Published September 12, 2011 by CRC Press
496 Pages 20 Color & 22 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The complex issues involved in the management of saline and sodic turfgrass soils are enough to perplex even the most experienced site manager — there is no "silver bullet" amendment, treatment, or grass for salinity management. Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: Assessment and Reclamation presents comprehensive scientific principles and detailed, practical management and assessment recommendations for turfgrass and landscape sites.

The authors use the Best Management Practices (BMPs) concept, considered the gold-standard management approach for any individual environmental issue, since it is a whole ecosystem (holistic), science-based salinity management approach that allows all possible management options to be considered and implemented on a site-specific basis. They identify BMP strategies, including irrigation system design; irrigation scheduling and salinity leaching; chemical, physical, and biological amendments; cultivation; topdressing; soil modification; sand-capping; surface and subsurface drainage options; nutritional practices; additional cultural practices; and ongoing monitoring. The book presents emerging challenges, technology, and concepts that address integration of salinity management into comprehensive site environmental or sustainable management systems, use of halophytic turfgrasses for non-traditional purposes, integration of geospatial and geostatistical concepts and technology, and integration of new sensor technology into daily management paradigms.

Outlining a holistic BMP approach, the book incorporates scientific principles and practical management recommendations and details specific salinity challenges and the logic behind each BMP strategy for salinity management, with an emphasis on actual field problems. The book is formatted for flexible use, with stand-alone chapters that include outlines for quick review of a topic for those requiring only a basic understanding as well as in-depth discussions of the science and practical aspects for those seeking a more rigorous treatment. It supplies a single source for all the information required to identify and manage diverse types of salinity stresses.

Table of Contents

Basics of Salt-Affected Sites
Overview and Classification of Salt-Affected Sites
Scope of Salinity Problems
Successful Salinity Management Approach

Saline Soils
Overview Of Saline Soil Problems
Total Soluble Salts (Total Salinity) Problems
Ion Toxicities and Problem Ions
Nutrients and Ion Imbalances
Managing Saline Soils

Sodic, Saline-Sodic, and Alkaline Soils

Sodic Soil Problems
Saline-Sodic Soils
Acid-Sulfate Soils

Salinity Soil Tests and Interpretation
Basics of Soil Sampling and Testing
Salt-Affected Soil Test Packages
Field Monitoring of Soil Salinity

Routine Soil Test Methods
Soil Testing
SLAN Approach, Extractants, and Interpretation
BCSR Approach, CEC Measurement, and Interpretation
Water Extractable (SPE, Dilute) Nutrients/Ions
Understanding the Soil Test Report

Irrigation Water Quality Tests, Interpretation, and Selection
Water Quality Testing
General Water Quality Characteristics
Total Soluble Salts (Total Salinity)
Sodium Permeability Hazard
Specific Ion Impact (Root Injury; Shoot Accumulation Injury)
Direct Foliage Injury And Miscellaneous Problems
Trace Elements
Irrigation Water Selection
Summary Table

Plant Analysis for Turfgrass

Theory and Practice of Plant Analyses
Sample Preparation
Analysis of Sample
Interpretation and Recommendations of Test Results

Assessment for Salt Movement, Additions, and Retention
Assessing Soil Physical Properties
Drainage Assessment for Drainage Impediments
Salinity Disposal Options
Restricting Salt Additions
Hydro-Geological Assessment for Protection of Surface and Ground Waters

Selection of Turfgrass and Landscape Plants
Plant Genetic and Physiological Responses to Salinity

Turfgrass Salinity Tolerance
Salinity Tolerance Mechanisms
Landscape Plants and Salinity Tolerance

Irrigation System Design and Maintenance for Poor Water Quality
Irrigation System Distribution Efficiency is Critical on Salt-Affected Sites
System Design Considerations for Managing Poor Quality Water
Irrigation System Distribution Uniformity (Water Audit)
Sites With Poorly Designed Irrigation Systems

Irrigation Scheduling and Salinity Leaching
Routine Irrigation Scheduling – Basics
Factors Affecting Salinity Leaching
Maintenance Leaching and Leaching Requirement (LR)
Reclamation Leaching
Pulse Irrigation and Other Water Application Methods
Enhancing Effectiveness of Salt Leaching – Summary
Salinity Management During Establishment

Selection of Amendments
Overview of Remediation Approaches in Sodic Situations
Calcium Sources
Acid Forming Materials + Lime Source
Organic Amendments for Sodic Soil Reclamation

Amendment Application Options and Guidelines
Amendment Application – Overview
Irrigation Water Acidification
Gypsum Requirement – Sodic Soils and Irrigation Water Injection
Irrigation Water Blending and Salt Loads

Cultivation, Topdressing, and Soil Modification
Soil Physical Problems – Overview
Cultivation on Saline and Sodic Soils – Guidelines
Soil Modification

Drainage and Sand-Capping
Drainage and Salinity
Surface Drainage
Subsurface Drainage
Sand-Capping Salt-Affected Sites

Nutritional Practices on Saline and Sodic Sites
Nutrient/Ion Rich Irrigation Water – Challenges
Monitoring Nutritional Status: Proactive or Reactive
Saline Irrigation Water Nutritional Considerations
Products, Labels, and Recommendations

Additional Cultural Practices

Salinity and Associated Stresses on a Site
Environmental Challenges and Management
Traffic Stresses and Management
Additional Amendments for Salinity Management
Greens Management Considerations
Biotic Stress X Salinity Interactions

Proactive Monitoring of Progress
Assessing Progress in BMP Salinity Management
Practical Considerations for on-Going Monitoring Programs
Criteria for Proactive Monitoring

Sustainable/Environmental Management Systems
Sustainable Environmental Management
Components of a Sustainable/EMS Plan on Salt-Affected Sites
Common Sense Approach to Long Term Sustainability

Reclamation, Drainage Water Reuse Schemes, and Halophytic Forage Sites
Non-Traditional Uses of Halophytic Turfgrasses
Reclamation and Site Assessment
Grass Selection Issues
Establishment Challenges and Methods
Management Challenges and Considerations


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"This book is the latest from Drs. Carrow and Duncan, who have published and lectured extensively on soil salinity and sodicity issues and the management of such soils over the past 15 years or so. … provides a comprehensive coverage of the nominated topic with twenty chapters organized sequentially under five section headings. … Throughout the book, the authors are to be commended for highlighting links to related chapters and parts thereof. … For both consultants and academics, there is much to like about this book. … this is a book that many soil scientists and agronomists dealing with salt-affected sites the world over will find extremely useful, and one that we can wholeheartedly recommend for their bookshelves."
. S. Loch, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, and R. J. Loch, Landloch Pty Ltd, Toowoomba, Australia, in Grass and Forage Science, 68, 606-607, 2013

"Drs. Carrow and Duncan have created an update to their previous book published in 1998 entitled Salt-Affected Turfgrass Sites. That book has been a staple for those studying plant and soil sciences relating to turfgrass management … This new book includes greatly expanded sections on the basics of salt-affected sites, soil and water testing, soil chemistry and physical properties, plant responses, site management and reclamation. … What could be a very densely written book packed with jargon is a reference that is a good combination of technical information and practical application. This makes the text usable by scientists in turfgrass management and practitioners in the field."
Paul G. Johnson, Vadose Zone Journal, November 2012

"Using the ‘best management practices’ (BMP5) concept, their new book examines the complex issues around salinity management. presenting comprehensive scientific principles and detailing practical management and assessment recommendations for turfgrass and landscape sites. Their overriding message is that there is no ‘silver bullet’ amendment, treatment, or grass tor salinity management and that only a holistic BMPs approach will be successful and sustainable."