Bioactive Peptides : Applications for Improving Nutrition and Health book cover
1st Edition

Bioactive Peptides
Applications for Improving Nutrition and Health

ISBN 9781439813621
Published June 23, 2010 by CRC Press
414 Pages 62 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Chronic illnesses, injury, or infections produce a decline in muscle mass―leading to delayed recovery, more post-treatment complications, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. Therefore, ensuring adequate lean body mass is of major concern in health care. Presenting data from human studies and trials, along with recent research findings, Bioactive Peptides: Applications for Improving Nutrition and Health summarizes the applications, and benefits of bioactive peptides used to mitigate major metabolic derangements that arise from chronic illnesses and result in unwanted weight loss.

Reviews the Latest Theories Explaining Muscle Loss and Accretion
During Illness & Infection

In chapters one through five, the book presents the background science on the relationship between illness and muscle weight loss, highlighting bioactive peptides’ ability to enhance the body’s antioxidant status, antisepsis capacity, immune function, anti-inflammatory capacity, growth potential, and appetite. Chapters six through nine deal with the use of bioactive peptides to modify aspects of the host response to illness, including inflammation, antimicrobial activity, anabolic dysfunction, and anorexia.

This state-of-the-art reference also includes case studies on aging, AIDS, COPD, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, kidney failure, and tuberculosis. It is a valuable resource for dieticians, doctors, nutritionists, and manufacturers of medical foods, tube feeds, supplements, and nutraceuticals.

Table of Contents

Nutrition and the Host Response to Infection and Injury
Nutrition and Illness
Host Response to Injury
Unintended Weight Loss
Multimodal Nutritional Support Using Bioactive Peptides
Summary and Conclusions
Bioactive Peptides for Nutrition and Health
Bioactive Peptides and Proteins
Applications of Protein Supplements for Health
Perspectives on Human Trial Data
Summary and Conclusions
Dietary Protein Requirements for Health
Dietary Protein Quality Relation to Health
Protein Requirements and Health
Dietary Protein and Host Responses to Illness
Peptides and Protein Bioactivity
Types of Dietary Protein Health Effects
Summary and Conclusion
Protein Turnover and Economics within the Body
Protein Turnover and Wasting
Baseline Whole Body Protein Turnover
Regional Protein Turnover
Nutrients and Protein Turnover
Slow and Fast Proteins
Summary and Conclusions
Major Processes for Muscle Gain and Loss
Muscle Cell Death and Atrophy
Proteolysis via Ubiquitin Proteasome
Further Signaling Pathways for Muscle Atrophy
Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Hypertrophy
Summary and Conclusions
Appendix 5.A.1 Details of mTOR Signaling
Inflammation and Innate Immune Response
Types of Inflammation
Proinflammatory Signaling
Anti-Inflammatory Bioactive Peptides and Supplements
In Vivo Applications and Controlled Trials
Summary and Conclusions
Infection and Sepsis
Pathogen Recognition and Intracellular Signaling
Host Antimicrobial Peptides
Functions of Antimicrobial Peptides
In Vivo Applications and Human-Trials of AMPs
Summary and Conclusions
Anabolic Dysfunction
Insulin and Muscle Protein Metabolism
Growth Hormone and IGF-1
Growth Hormone Secretagogues
Leucine, BCAA, and Related Peptides
In Vivo Applications and Clinical Trials
Bioactive Peptides for Alleviating Illness Anorexia
Illness Anorexia
Leptin and Food Intake
Melanocortin Peptides
Other Bioactive Peptides for Moderating Appetite
In Vivo Studies and Controlled Trials
Summary and Conclusions

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Richard Owusu-Apenten is a faculty member at the Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), School of Biomedical Science, University of Ulster, Coleraine.