1st Edition

Bolivia and the Making of the Global Indigenous Movement Anthropology, Development and Transnationalism

By Juanita Roca-Sánchez Copyright 2025
    256 Pages
    by Routledge

    This book investigates how western anthropological trends, development discourse and transnational activism came to create and define the global indigenous movement.

    Using Bolivia as a case study, the author demonstrates through a historical research, how international ideas of what it means and does not mean to be indigenous have played out at the national level. Tracing these trends from pre-revolutionary Bolivia, the Inter-American indigenismo in the 1940s up to Evo Morales’ downfall, the book reflects on Bolivia’s national-level policy discourse and constitutional changes, but also asks to what extent these principles have been transmitted to the country’s grassroots organisations and movements such as “Indianismo”, “Katarismo”, “CSUTCB” and “CIDOB”. Overall, the book argues that indigeneity can only be adequately understood, as a longue durée anthropological, political, and legal construction, crafted within broader geopolitical contexts. Within this context, the classical dichotomy between “indigenous” and “whites” should be challenged, in favour of a more nuanced understanding of plural indigeneities.

    This book will be of interest to researchers from across the fields of global studies, political anthropology, history of anthropology, international development, socio-legal studies, Latin American history, and indigenous studies.

    Introduction: Labelling ‘the Other’: Anthropology, Development and Indigeneity  Part I: The Genealogy  1. The paradigm shift between social Darwinism and integration policies for Indians in Bolivia during the 1930s and 1940s  2. The Integrationist Paradigm for Latin America during the Cold War period: Indigenismo, anthropology and international development  Part II: From the Integrationist Paradigm to the Indigenisation of Identities  3. ‘For the liberation of the Indians’: the foundations of the Global and Latin American Indigenous Movement (1968-1975)  4. Anthropologists,  international organisations and the establishment of the Global Indigenous Movement Network during the 1970s and 1980s  Part III: The Indigenisation of Identities Paradigm in Bolivia  5. The emergence of ethnic politics and the paradigm shift towards the Indigenisation of Identities in Bolivia during the Cold War period and the early 1990s  6. The indigenisation of identities paradigm in Bolivia: Transnationalism, the Bolivian state, NGOs and international development  Part IV: Ethnic Politics During the Twenty-First Century in Bolivia  7. Contested Indigeneities in Bolivia at the turn of the new millennium  8. The downfall of Evo Morales, the TIPNIS controversy, post-Development and indigeneities  Conclusions  List of Interviews and oral sources


    Juanita Roca-Sánchez is an independent scholar, researcher and consultant. She holds a PhD in Social Science (Anthropology and Development Studies) from CEDLA-University of Amsterdam-Netherlands. She was initially trained as a historian at Universidad de Chile in Santiago, and her master studies are in Anthropology and Development from the London School of Economics-UK and Public Management from the University of Potsdam-Germany.