The macular carotenoids play key roles in eye health and retinal disease. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of acquired blindness in much of the world, is associated with low levels of macular pigment. Macular pigment is also essential for enhancing visual performance by reducing glare disability and improving photostress recovery. Carotenoids and Retinal Disease presents an up-to-date, thorough volume devoted to the chemistry, pathobiology, visual science, and medical and public health significance of the macular carotenoids.
With contributions from an international group of leading experts, this book covers a range of topics, from macular anatomy to clinical trials. It begins with a chapter tracing the discovery of macular pigment through the more recent functional recognition of carotenoids. The text covers AMD risk factors, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and classifications. It reviews evidence from epidemiological studies of relationships between AMD and the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, as well as evidence from clinical trials on the effects of macular carotenoid supplementation in subjects with AMD and normal subjects.
The book explores the use of molecular genetics in studying macular pigment and AMD pathogenesis; bioavailability of macular pigment; functions of lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin; and the identification of macular carotenoid binding proteins involved in pigment uptake and transport. It also covers xanthophyll–membrane interactions, and the macular carotenoids in human serum and their capacity to protect against AMD. Further, the implications of light distribution on the retina for AMD are discussed. Advancing our understanding of how the macular carotenoids enhance vision and prevent vision loss, this book provides a valuable reference for researchers and clinicians involved in the treatment and prevention of retinal disease.
Table of Contents
Macular Pigment: From Discovery to Function
John T. Landrum, Richard Bone, Martha Neuringer, and Yisi Cao
Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Their Relationship with the Macular Carotenoids
Tos T.J.M. Berendschot
Epidemiology and Aetiopathogenesis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Sobha Sivaprasad and Phil Hykin
Relationships of Lutein and Zeaxanthin to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Epidemiological Evidence
Julie A. Mares
Clinical Trials Investigating the Macular Carotenoids
Sarah Sabour-Pickett, John M. Nolan, and Stephen Beatty
The Promise of Molecular Genetics for Investigating the Influence of Macular Xanthophylls on Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration
John Paul SanGiovanni and Martha Neuringer
A Review of Recent Data on the Bioavailability of Lutein and Zeaxanthin
Mareike Beck and Wolfgang Schalch
Multiple Influences of Xanthophylls Within the Visual System
Billy R. Hammond and James G. Elliott
Transport and Retinal Capture of the Macular Carotenoids
Binxing Li and Paul S. Bernstein
Measurement and Interpretation of Macular Carotenoids in Human Serum
David I. Thurnham, Katherine A. Meagher, Eithne Connolly, and John M. Nolan
Xanthophyll–Membrane Interactions: Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Witold k. Subczynski, Anna Wisniewska-Becker, and Justyna Widomska
Light Distribution on the Retina: Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Richard A. Bone, Jorge C. Gibert, and Anirbaan Mukherjee
John T. Landrum, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Florida International University (FIU), where in addition to his role as a faculty member he serves as a director at the Office of Pre-Health Professions Advising for the College of Arts and Sciences. His current research efforts are focused on understanding the mechanisms of biological recognition of individual carotenoids, their absorption and transport, and their role in the developing human eye. In 2004, Professor Landrum’s contributions in the field of chemistry were recognized by the FIU with an award for Excellence in Research. He has authored or coauthored 66 articles and chapters in peer-reviewed journals and books.
John M. Nolan, Ph.D., is a Fulbright scholar, Howard and European Research Council (ERC) Fellow, adjunct professor of Trinity College Dublin, and principal investigator of the Macular Pigment Research Group (MPRG), Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland. Professor Nolan was one of the founders of the MPRG, which leads world-class research initiatives in the role of eye nutrition for vision and prevention of blindness and which is now the largest group worldwide studying the macular carotenoids.