Changing the Workplace Safety Culture  book cover
1st Edition

Changing the Workplace Safety Culture

ISBN 9781466567689
Published July 15, 2013 by CRC Press
252 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Despite the fact that workplaces have implemented and followed new safety innovations and approaches, the majority of them have seen little, if any, significant progress in the reduction of accidental deaths and injuries. Changing the Workplace Safety Culture demonstrates that changing the way an organization views and practices safety will impact the behavior of all employees including executive and line managers. It delineates how safety culture change can be implemented and defines the roles of everyone in the safety culture, including management, employees, and unions and their members.

Rather than focus on behavior-based safety measures, this book provides step-by-step procedures on how to establish a long-lasting integrated safety management system in any organization. It explores how to change the safety personality of an organization. The author covers the management principles and functions that need to be applied to bring about safety culture change and includes many real-life examples. He goes on to explain the activities needed to implement safety change and the benefits of getting others involved in the safety management system.

The only way to ensure that accidents and their consequences are tackled at the source is to identify and eliminate the workplace risks before, rather than after, the event. To be truly effective, safety activities must be integrated into the day-to-day business and become a way of life for management and employees of the organization. This book provides a blueprint for creating an active safety culture that prevents accidents before they occur and becomes the key component in ongoing safety success.

Table of Contents

Is Safety Really First?
Safety Culture
An Overview of Safety Culture
Neither a Buzzword nor an Easy Fix
MSHA Defines Safety Culture
The History of Safety and Safety Culture

Safety at the Workplace
How Well Are We Doing?
Consequence Concentration
Injuries Almost Irrelevant
Upstream Actions
Near-Miss Incidents
Modern Safety Culture
Work-Related and Non-Work-Related Accidents
Homes More Dangerous Than Workplaces?
Status Quo
H.W. Heinrich
Frank E. Bird, Jr
Bird vs. Heinrich

Accident Causation Theories
Accident Sequence
Failure to Assess the Risk
Lack of Control
Basic Causes or Root Causes
Immediate Causes
Contact and Exchange of Energy
Injury, Damage, or Loss
A Measure of Safety

Safety Culture Change Management Functions
Management Leadership
What Is a Manager?
Basic Safety Management Functions
Safety Planning
Organizing for Safety
Safety Leading
Safety Controlling

Safety Culture Change Management Principles
Safety Management Principles
Safety Culture Change Success
Principle of Safety Management Results
Principle of the Key Safety Advocate
Principle of Safety Leadership
Principle of Setting Safety Objectives
Principle of Resistance to Safety Change
Principle of Safety Communication
Principle of Safety Participation
Principle of Safety Definition
Principle of Safety Reporting
Principle of Safety Authority
Principle of Interest in Safety
Principle of the Critical Few
Principle of Safety Recognition
Past Safety Experience Predicts Future Experience Principle
Principle of Safety Application
Principle of Point of Control
Principle of Multiple Causes

A Culture of Fear
Embedded Culture
International Culture
Safety Bribery
Injuries Off-the-Job
Underground Mine Injury
Safety Incentives
E’s Story (as told to me)
Condoned Practice
Fear of Reporting
The Biggest Challenge
Declaring Amnesty
Cardinal Rules
Creating a Safe Space
Case Study

Key Attributes of a Positive Safety Culture
Safety as a Value
Safety Ethics
Safety Strategy
Mission Statement
Safety Philosophy
Safety Principles
Safety Policy Statement
Health and Safety Standards
What System Are You Running?
Strong Leadership in Place
Management Training
Establishing Authority, Responsibility, and Accountability
Declaration of Safety Amnesty
A Trust Forum between Employees and Management
Employee Empowerment in Safety
Safety Matters Receive Attention
Development of Employees and Unions
Ongoing Improvement
Constant Monitoring of Progress
Safety Standards Set and Maintained
The Safety Team
The Workplace
Safety Communication Systems
Building Blocks of a Good Safety Culture

Safety Management Systems
Safety Management Systems
Risk Based
Management Led
Audit Based
Internationally Accepted Risk-Based Safety Systems
NOSA and SPI Five-Star Safety and Health Management System
British Safety Council Five-Star Health and Safety Audit System
International Loss Control Institute International Safety Rating System (ISRS)
British Standards Institute Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series System (BSI-OHSAS 18001)
SANS OHSAS 18001:2011
SANS OHSAS 18002:2011
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP)

Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 1
Major Decision
Safety Leadership Team (SLT)
Management Training
Declaration of Safety Amnesty (No-Blame Culture)
A Safe Space
Credibility of Culture Change
Development of Employees and Unions
Sharing of Knowledge
Employee Empowerment in Safety
Listening to the Workforce
All on Board
The Next Steps

Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 2
Risk Assessment
Risk Control
Establishing Authority, Responsibility, and Accountability
Appointment of a Senior Manager
Example of an Accountabilities Standard
Safety Audits
Safety Culture Survey
Action Plans Based on Audit Results
Taking Action
Safety and Organizational Goals

Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 3
Business Order (Good Housekeeping)
The Buildings and Floors
Demarcation of Work Areas and Walkways
Stacking and Storage
Toilet, Washroom, and Lunchroom Facilities
Mechanical and Electrical Environment
Ergonomic Surveys
Occupational Hygiene Risks

Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 4
Implementing the Safety System Controls
Management Control
Implementing a Safety Management System (SMS)
Developing Safety System Standards
How Does a Safety System Impact Safety Culture?
Changing the Culture

Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 5
The Safety Department
Duties and Functions of a Safety Practitioner
Occupational Hygiene
Safety, Health, Environment, Quality, and Liability (SHEQR)
Professional Behavior
Key Role
Appointing Champions for Change
The Safety Advocates
Safety and Health Representatives (Safety Representatives)

Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 6
Monitoring Progress
Keeping the Culture
Recognizing Safety Achievements
Riding the Bicycle

The Aluminum Company Case Study
The Situation as It Was
Safety in the Safety Department
Training Areas
Support of Safety Team
Culture Change
Executive Safety Committee
The First Fatality
The Second Fatality
My Predecessors
The Safety Committee
The Showdown
The CEO Saves the Day
Some Safety Culture Achievements during the 2 Years
And Then What Happened?

The Copper Mine Case Study
How It Started
Initial Contact
The Implementation Phase
As It Was
Management Closeout
Only the Plant
The First External Audit
The Mine Buys into the System
No Follow-Up from NOSA
The Contract
The First 3 Months
The Safety Leadership Team
Reporting Hierarchy
Restructuring of the Safety Department
Injury Management
The Safety and Health Representatives
Managers Now Attend the Training
Safety System Development
Resistance to Change
Staff Development
One Five-Star Area
Copper Company Merger
New Corporate Safety Director
MSHA Training
Training of Safety and Health Representatives and the Jackets
Internal Accredited Auditor Training
External Audits
Reductions in Injury Rates
Safety Culture Change

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"Ron McKinnon informs the reader of how management's role really sets what safety culture is all about. He guides the reader through a detailed discussion of why safety culture isn't just limited to a collection of random worker behaviors but is much more of a purposeful outcome of the active policies that management embraces, demonstrates, and leads with by example."
—Jonathan Klane M.S.ed., CIH, CHMM, CET, 2012, Klane’s Education Information Training Hub