1st Edition

Changing the Workplace Safety Culture

By Ron C. McKinnon Copyright 2014
    252 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Despite the fact that workplaces have implemented and followed new safety innovations and approaches, the majority of them have seen little, if any, significant progress in the reduction of accidental deaths and injuries. Changing the Workplace Safety Culture demonstrates that changing the way an organization views and practices safety will impact the behavior of all employees including executive and line managers. It delineates how safety culture change can be implemented and defines the roles of everyone in the safety culture, including management, employees, and unions and their members.

    Rather than focus on behavior-based safety measures, this book provides step-by-step procedures on how to establish a long-lasting integrated safety management system in any organization. It explores how to change the safety personality of an organization. The author covers the management principles and functions that need to be applied to bring about safety culture change and includes many real-life examples. He goes on to explain the activities needed to implement safety change and the benefits of getting others involved in the safety management system.

    The only way to ensure that accidents and their consequences are tackled at the source is to identify and eliminate the workplace risks before, rather than after, the event. To be truly effective, safety activities must be integrated into the day-to-day business and become a way of life for management and employees of the organization. This book provides a blueprint for creating an active safety culture that prevents accidents before they occur and becomes the key component in ongoing safety success.

    Is Safety Really First?
    Safety Culture
    An Overview of Safety Culture
    Neither a Buzzword nor an Easy Fix
    MSHA Defines Safety Culture
    The History of Safety and Safety Culture

    Safety at the Workplace
    How Well Are We Doing?
    Consequence Concentration
    Injuries Almost Irrelevant
    Upstream Actions
    Near-Miss Incidents
    Modern Safety Culture
    Work-Related and Non-Work-Related Accidents
    Homes More Dangerous Than Workplaces?
    Status Quo
    H.W. Heinrich
    Frank E. Bird, Jr
    Bird vs. Heinrich

    Accident Causation Theories
    Accident Sequence
    Failure to Assess the Risk
    Lack of Control
    Basic Causes or Root Causes
    Immediate Causes
    Contact and Exchange of Energy
    Injury, Damage, or Loss
    A Measure of Safety

    Safety Culture Change Management Functions
    Management Leadership
    What Is a Manager?
    Basic Safety Management Functions
    Safety Planning
    Organizing for Safety
    Safety Leading
    Safety Controlling

    Safety Culture Change Management Principles
    Safety Management Principles
    Safety Culture Change Success
    Principle of Safety Management Results
    Principle of the Key Safety Advocate
    Principle of Safety Leadership
    Principle of Setting Safety Objectives
    Principle of Resistance to Safety Change
    Principle of Safety Communication
    Principle of Safety Participation
    Principle of Safety Definition
    Principle of Safety Reporting
    Principle of Safety Authority
    Principle of Interest in Safety
    Principle of the Critical Few
    Principle of Safety Recognition
    Past Safety Experience Predicts Future Experience Principle
    Principle of Safety Application
    Principle of Point of Control
    Principle of Multiple Causes

    A Culture of Fear
    Embedded Culture
    International Culture
    Safety Bribery
    Injuries Off-the-Job
    Underground Mine Injury
    Safety Incentives
    E’s Story (as told to me)
    Condoned Practice
    Fear of Reporting
    The Biggest Challenge
    Declaring Amnesty
    Cardinal Rules
    Creating a Safe Space
    Case Study

    Key Attributes of a Positive Safety Culture
    Safety as a Value
    Safety Ethics
    Safety Strategy
    Mission Statement
    Safety Philosophy
    Safety Principles
    Safety Policy Statement
    Health and Safety Standards
    What System Are You Running?
    Strong Leadership in Place
    Management Training
    Establishing Authority, Responsibility, and Accountability
    Declaration of Safety Amnesty
    A Trust Forum between Employees and Management
    Employee Empowerment in Safety
    Safety Matters Receive Attention
    Development of Employees and Unions
    Ongoing Improvement
    Constant Monitoring of Progress
    Safety Standards Set and Maintained
    The Safety Team
    The Workplace
    Safety Communication Systems
    Building Blocks of a Good Safety Culture

    Safety Management Systems
    Safety Management Systems
    Risk Based
    Management Led
    Audit Based
    Internationally Accepted Risk-Based Safety Systems
    NOSA and SPI Five-Star Safety and Health Management System
    British Safety Council Five-Star Health and Safety Audit System
    International Loss Control Institute International Safety Rating System (ISRS)
    British Standards Institute Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series System (BSI-OHSAS 18001)
    SANS OHSAS 18001:2011
    SANS OHSAS 18002:2011
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP)

    Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 1
    Major Decision
    Safety Leadership Team (SLT)
    Management Training
    Declaration of Safety Amnesty (No-Blame Culture)
    A Safe Space
    Credibility of Culture Change
    Development of Employees and Unions
    Sharing of Knowledge
    Employee Empowerment in Safety
    Listening to the Workforce
    All on Board
    The Next Steps

    Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 2
    Risk Assessment
    Risk Control
    Establishing Authority, Responsibility, and Accountability
    Appointment of a Senior Manager
    Example of an Accountabilities Standard
    Safety Audits
    Safety Culture Survey
    Action Plans Based on Audit Results
    Taking Action
    Safety and Organizational Goals

    Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 3
    Business Order (Good Housekeeping)
    The Buildings and Floors
    Demarcation of Work Areas and Walkways
    Stacking and Storage
    Toilet, Washroom, and Lunchroom Facilities
    Mechanical and Electrical Environment
    Ergonomic Surveys
    Occupational Hygiene Risks

    Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 4
    Implementing the Safety System Controls
    Management Control
    Implementing a Safety Management System (SMS)
    Developing Safety System Standards
    How Does a Safety System Impact Safety Culture?
    Changing the Culture

    Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 5
    The Safety Department
    Duties and Functions of a Safety Practitioner
    Occupational Hygiene
    Safety, Health, Environment, Quality, and Liability (SHEQR)
    Professional Behavior
    Key Role
    Appointing Champions for Change
    The Safety Advocates
    Safety and Health Representatives (Safety Representatives)

    Steps toward Shifting the Workplace Safety Culture—Part 6
    Monitoring Progress
    Keeping the Culture
    Recognizing Safety Achievements
    Riding the Bicycle

    The Aluminum Company Case Study
    The Situation as It Was
    Safety in the Safety Department
    Training Areas
    Support of Safety Team
    Culture Change
    Executive Safety Committee
    The First Fatality
    The Second Fatality
    My Predecessors
    The Safety Committee
    The Showdown
    The CEO Saves the Day
    Some Safety Culture Achievements during the 2 Years
    And Then What Happened?

    The Copper Mine Case Study
    How It Started
    Initial Contact
    The Implementation Phase
    As It Was
    Management Closeout
    Only the Plant
    The First External Audit
    The Mine Buys into the System
    No Follow-Up from NOSA
    The Contract
    The First 3 Months
    The Safety Leadership Team
    Reporting Hierarchy
    Restructuring of the Safety Department
    Injury Management
    The Safety and Health Representatives
    Managers Now Attend the Training
    Safety System Development
    Resistance to Change
    Staff Development
    One Five-Star Area
    Copper Company Merger
    New Corporate Safety Director
    MSHA Training
    Training of Safety and Health Representatives and the Jackets
    Internal Accredited Auditor Training
    External Audits
    Reductions in Injury Rates
    Safety Culture Change


    Ron C. McKinnon

    "Ron McKinnon informs the reader of how management's role really sets what safety culture is all about. He guides the reader through a detailed discussion of why safety culture isn't just limited to a collection of random worker behaviors but is much more of a purposeful outcome of the active policies that management embraces, demonstrates, and leads with by example."
    —Jonathan Klane M.S.ed., CIH, CHMM, CET, 2012, Klane’s Education Information Training Hub