Sustainable world economy requires a steady supply of crude oil without any production constraints. Thus, the ever-increasing energy demand of the entire world can be mostly met through the enhanced production from crude oil from existing reservoirs. With the fact that newer reservoirs with large quantities of crude oil could not be explored at a faster pace, it will be inevitable to produce the crude oil from matured reservoirs at an affordable cost. Among alternate technologies, the chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique has promising potential to recover residual oil from matured reservoirs being subjected to primary and secondary water flooding operations. Due to pertinent complex phenomena that often have a combinatorial role and influence, the implementation of chemical EOR schemes such as alkali/surfactant/polymer flooding and their combinations necessitates upon a fundamental understanding of the potential mechanisms and their influences upon one another and desired response variables. Addressing these issues, the book attempts to provide useful screening criteria, guidelines, and rules of thumb for the identification of process parametric sets (including reservoir characteristics) and response characteristics (such as IFT, adsorption etc.,) that favor alternate chemical EOR systems. Finally, the book highlights the relevance of nanofluid/nanoparticle for conventional and unconventional reservoirs and serves as a needful resource to understand the emerging oil recovery technology. Overall, the volume will be of greater relevance for practicing engineers and consultants that wish to accelerate on field applications of chemical and nano-fluid EOR systems. Further, to those budding engineers that wish to improvise upon their technical know-how, the book will serve as a much-needed repository.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction to Chemical and Nanofluids Induced Oil Recovery 1.1 Importance of Crude Oil 1.2 Crude Oil - Demands and Supply 1.3 Enhanced and Improved Oil Recovery 1.4 Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery 1.4.1 Capillary Number 1.4.2 Interfacial Tension (IFT) 1.4.3 Emulsification 1.4.4 Displacement Efficiency 1.4.5 Mobility Ratio 1.4.6 Wettability Alteration 1.5 Criteria for EOR and Chemical EOR 1.6 Overview of Chemical and Chemical-Nanofluid EOR 1.7 Complexities and literature lacuna for Chemical and Chemical-Nanofluid EOR 2 Alkali flooding – Mechanisms Investigation 2.1 Introduction to alkali flooding 2.2 IFT between crude oil and alkaline solution 2.3 Alkali flooding in sandpack 2.3.1 Alkali concentration on oil recovery 2.3.2 Extent of emulsification and size distribution of droplets 2.3.3 Slug size on residual oil recovery 2.3.4 Injection pattern on oil recovery 2.3.5 Alkali injection rate for oil recovery 2.4 Neutralization and saponification of crude oil 2.5 Wettability alteration of reservoir rock 2.6 Overall factors deciding oil recovery 2.7 Conclusions 3 Alkali and Surfactant Flooding 3.1 Introduction to alkali-surfactant flooding 3.2 Selection of alkali based on IFT 3.2.1 IFT between crude oil and different alkalis 3.2.2 Temperature and salinity effect on alkali-crude IFT 3.3 Selection of surfactants based on IFT 3.3.1 IFT between crude oil and different surfactants 3.3.2 Synergy of emulsification and IFT 3.3.3 Thermal stability of surfactants 3.4 Formulation of optimal surfactant composition 3.4.1 Dynamic IFT of combined surfactants 3.4.2 Influence of temperature and salinity on optimum surfactant composition 3.4.3 Adsorption behaviour of optimum surfactant composition 3.5 IFT between alkali-surfactant combinations 3.6 Wettability Alteration with different chemicals 3.7 Berea core flooding for oil recovery 3.8 Conclusions 4 Surfactant Adsorption Characteristics on Reservoir Rock 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Characterization of rock samples 4.3 Interfacial tension between crude oil and surfactant 4.3.1 IFT behaviour using different surfactants 4.3.2 IFT behaviour with formation water 4.4 Thermal stability of surfactants 4.4.1 IFT of aged and non-aged surfactant samples 4.5 Adsorption isotherms 4.5.1 Adsorption kinetic models 4.6 Influence of salinity and temperature on adsorption capacity 4.7 Adsorption thermodynamic parameters 4.8 Role of rock minerals on adsorption quantity 4.9 Conclusions 5 Nanofluid Flooding for Oil Recovery 5.1 Introduction to nanofluid flooding 5.2 Methods to evaluate nanofluid stability 5.3 Influence of nanofluid on rheological properties 5.4 Influence of nanofluid on interfacial tension 5.5 Effect of nanofluid on emulsion properties 5.5.1 Nanofluid for emulsion stability 5.5.2 Nanofluid for creaming index 5.5.3 Nanofluid for emulsion viscosity 5.6 Influence of Nanofluid on Wettability Alteration 5.7 Nanofluid flooding for oil recovery 5.8 Identification of nanoparticles in emulsion and rock surfaces 5.9 Nanofluid field projects and technical challenges 5.10 Conclusions 6 Problems and Challenges in Chemical EOR 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Limitation of chemical EOR 6.2.1 Precipitation and scaling 6.2.2 Formation damage 6.2.3 Treatment of produced emulsion 6.2.4 Chemical separation 6.2.5 Water disposal 6.2.6 Challenges 6.3 Case Studies on challenges of chemical EOR 6.4 Technical solutions for chemical EOR 6.5 Chemical EOR: Laboratory and pilot scale studies Chapter 7 Application of Nanotechnology in Unconventional Reservoirs 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Hydraulic fracturing fluid 7.3 Limitation of hydraulic fracturing fluid 7.4 Nanotechnology in unconventional reservoir 7.4.1 Nanoparticles for hydraulic fracturing 7.4.2 Nanoparticles impact on proppant 7.4.3 Nanoparticles as fluid loss control agent 7.4.4 Nanoparticles in sensors 7.4.5 Nanoparticles in unconventional gas reservoirs 7.5 Field applications and challenges in unconventional reservoirs
Rahul Saha is an assistant professor in the school of petroleum technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. His research area is primarily focused on the recovery of crude oil from reservoirs by chemical enhanced oil recovery method and the application of nanotechnology. His teaching areas is focused on Chemical and Petroleum engineering and so far, he has published 7 research articles. Pankaj Tiwari is working as an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati. His research activities are in studying the various mechanisms for enhanced oil recovery and, developing kinetics and compositional models for pyrolysis and combustion processes. He has previously worked at General Electric, Plastic division at JFWTC Bangalore on developing the monomer for high-performance polymer (HPP). Ramgopal V.S. Uppaluri is currently working as a professor, department of chemical engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati. His research interests include membrane technology, petroleum engineering and refining, food engineering and processing, process optimization and wastewater treatment. He has published more than 90 research papers in journals of national and international repute. In upstream engineering, his research is primarily in the field of chemical and polymer enhanced oil recovery.