1st Edition

Climate Change and Estuaries

    684 Pages 150 Color & 46 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    684 Pages 150 Color & 46 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Climate change is having an increasing impact on coastal, estuarine, and marine environments worldwide. This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of climate change effects on estuarine ecosystems from local, regional, and global perspectives. With editors among the most noted international scholars in coastal ecology and estuarine science and contributors who are world-class in their fields, the chapters in this volume consist of comprehensive studies in coastal, estuarine and marine sciences, climate change, and coastal management and provide an extensive international collection of data in tabular, illustrated, and narrative formats useful for coastal scientists, planners, and managers.

    Comprised of three sections: (1) physical-chemical aspects; (2) biological aspects; and (3) management aspects, the book not only examines climatic and non-climatic drivers of change affecting coastal, estuarine, and marine environments but also their interactions and effects on populations of organisms, communities, habitats, and ecosystem structure and function.

    Pulling together today’s most salient issues and key literature advances for those concerned with coastal management, it allows the reader to see across direct and indirect interactions among disciplinary and ecosystem boundaries.

    Climate Change and Estuaries meets the research needs of climate scientists, estuarine and marine biologists, marine chemists, marine geologists, hydrologists, and coastal engineers, while students, professors, administrators, and other professionals will also find it an exhaustive reference.


    Michael Oppenheimer


    The Editors


    Section 1: Physical-Chemical Aspects

    Chapter 1 Introduction to Climate Change and Estuaries

    Michael J. Kennish, Hans W. Paerl, and Joseph R. Crosswell

    Chapter 2 Climate Change in the Earth System

    David R. Easterling and Kenneth E. Kunkel

    Chapter 3 Estuaries: Origin, Historical Development, and Classifications

    Michael J. Kennish

    Chapter 4 Sea-level Rise and Estuaries

    John A. Church and Xuebin Zhang

    Chapter 5 Anthropogenic Drivers of Estuarine Change

    Michael J. Kennish

    Chapter 6 Climate Change and Saltwater Intrusion in Estuaries

    Arnoldo Valle-Levinson and Ming Li

    Chapter 7 Biogeochemical Changes in Estuaries

    Nicholas D. Ward, Thomas S. Bianchi, Christopher L. Osburn, and Allison Myers-Pigg

    Chapter 8 Hypoxia and Climate Change in Estuaries

    Jeremy M. Testa, Jacob Carstensen, Arnaud Laurent, and Ming Li

    Chapter 9 Estuarine Acidification Under a Changing Climate

    Wei-Jun Cai

    Chapter 10 Global Change and Estuarine Carbon Dynamics

    Charles Hopkinson, Nathaniel Weston, and Wei-Jun Cai

    Chapter 11 Blue Carbon in a Changing Climate and a Changing Context

    Lisamarie Windham-Myers

    Chapter 12 Effects of a Changing Climate on the Physics of Estuaries

    L. Fernando Pareja-Roman and Robert J. Chant

    Chapter 13 Climatic Drivers of Estuarine Sediment Dynamics

    Neil K. Ganju

    Chapter 14 Climate Change Effects on Intertidal and Subtidal Environments: Impacts, Projections, and Management

    Kerrylee Rogers, Janine Adams, Nicole Cormier, Jeffrey Kelleway, and Neil Saintilan

    Section 2: Biological Aspects

    Chapter 15 Estuarine and Coastal Marine Organism Responses to Climate Change: An Introduction

    Alexa Fredston and Benjamin S. Halpern

    Chapter 16 Microbial Ecology in a Changing Climate

    Jennifer L. Bowen

    Chapter 17 Climate Change, Phytoplankton, and HABs

    Hans W. Paerl

    Chapter 18 Responses of Marine Macroalgae to Climate Change Drivers

    Yan Ji and Kunshan Gao

    Chapter 19 Climate Change Effects on Salt Marshes

    Ivan Valiela, Javier Lloret, and Kelsey Chenoweth

    Chapter 20 Mangrove Forests and Climate Change: Impacts and Interactions

    Daniel A. Friess, Luzhen Chen, Nicole Cormier, Ken W. Krauss, Catherine E. Lovelock, Jacqueline L. Raw, Kerrylee Rogers, Neil Saintilan, and Frida Sidik

    Chapter 21 Estuarine Seagrass and Climate Change

    Kenneth A. Moore and Jessie C. Jarvis

    Chapter 22 Estuarine Benthos and Climate Change

    Jeffrey S. Levinton

    Chapter 23 Estuarine Shellfish and Climate Change

    Stephen J. Tomasetti and Christopher J. Gobler

    Chapter 24 Climate Change Effects on Fish Populations

    Alan K. Whitfield, Bronwyn M. Gillanders, and Kenneth W. Able

    Chapter 25 Estuarine and Coastal Birds, Climate Change, and Sea Level Rise

    Joanna Burger

    Chapter 26 Climate Change and Invasive Species

    Edwin D. Grosholz

    Chapter 27 Animal Response to Hypoxia in Estuaries and Effects of Climate Change

    Brad A. Seibel

    Section 3: Management Aspects

    Chapter 28 Perspectives on Managing Estuaries while Addressing the Climate Crisis

    Donald F. Boesch and Natalie Snider

    Chapter 29 Sea-level Rise Risk and Adaptation in Estuaries

    Jochen Hinkel, Mark Schuerch, Jon French, and Robert J. Nicholls

    Chapter 30 Managing for Resilience of Estuarine and Coastal Marine Environments to Climate Change

    Heather M. Leslie, Melissa L. Britsch, Marina Cucuzza, Kara E. Pellowe, Sarah Risley, and Joshua S. Stoll

    Chapter 31 Climate Change Adaptation of Engineering Infrastructure in Estuarine Environments

    W. L. Peirson, R. J. Cox, and K. A. Bishop

    Chapter 32 Conserving and Managing Estuaries during Climate Change

    J. K. O’Leary, E. E. Bockmon, M. Goodman, G. Grimsditch, M. A. Madej, A. Mohammed, and J. Tyburczy



    Dr. Michael J. Kennish is a professor emeritus in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. His career in coastal, estuarine, and marine sciences spans nearly 50 years and has included extensive multidisciplinary research on coastal, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. He has also taught coastal and marine science classes at Rutgers University for many years. In addition, he has been active for decades in the outreach of science to coastal communities and K-12 schools. As a member of the Climate Institute at Rutgers University, Dr. Kennish has been involved in the study of long-term climate change impacts on the New Jersey coast and elsewhere. He was an expert reviewer of the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published in 2021 (WGI) and 2022 (WGII and WGIII). Dr. Kennish is the author or editor of 16 scholarly books on various topics in coastal, estuarine, and marine sciences, the author or editor of more than 200 research articles in science journals and other publications, and the editor of 9 peer-reviewed compendium science journal special issues.

    Dr. Kennish has maintained a wide range of research interests in marine ecology and marine geology. He has been most actively involved in leading research teams investigating estuarine and coastal marine environments in New Jersey. Much of this research has involved in the development and application of innovative methods to determine the condition and ecosystem health of coastal ecosystems in the state. Dr. Kennish is widely known for his work on the human impacts of coastal, estuarine, and marine environments and has served on environmental panels and workgroups assessing these problems in New Jersey, the mid-Atlantic region, and nationwide, while concomitantly collaborating extensively with state and federal government agencies to remediate degraded water quality and habitats. Most notably, he has been heavily engaged in investigations of impairment and remediation of impacted estuarine and coastal marine environments. These include studies of the natural and anthropogenic stressors that effect change in coastal ecosystems as well as the dynamics of environmental forcing factors that generate imbalances in biotic community structure and ecosystem function. His research, which has been funded by the USEPA, NOAA, USDA, state environmental agencies, and other federal and state sources, is multidisciplinary in scope. It addresses an array of nationally significant problems, such as habitat loss and alteration of aquatic systems, nutrient enrichment and eutrophication, hypoxia and anoxia, organic pollution, chemical contaminants, climate change, sea level rise, overfishing, invasive species, watercraft effects, dredging and dredged-material disposal, freshwater diversions, calefaction of estuarine waters, entrainment and impingement of electric generating stations, and the effects of watershed development on coastal systems. In addition, he has examined the effects of construction and operation of industrial facilities, maintenance of shorelines and waterways, and human use of coastal space and aquatic systems. He has also studied the biology and geology of mid-ocean ridge and deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems as a member of the Center for Deep-Sea Ecology and Biotechnology at Rutgers University.

    Dr. Kennish is the recipient of many awards, including the 2008 Guardian of the Barnegat Bay Award (Barnegat Bay National Estuary Program/USEPA), 2009 NOAA/NERRA National Award for outstanding contributions to the National Estuarine Research Reserve System of NOAA, 2010 Graham Macmillan Award of the American Littoral Society for significant contributions to marine science and conservation, 2010 Sierra Club Award for outstanding environmental accomplishments, 2011 Pearl S. Schwartz Environmental Award of the League of Women Voters for work on New Jersey’s coastal environments, 2013 Frank Oliver Award of the New Jersey Environmental Lobby for contributions to the protection of New Jersey’s environments, and the 2017 Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award for dedication to the environmental and oceanographic sciences.

    Dr. Hans W. Paerl is the Kenan Professor of Marine and Environmental Sciences at the University of North Carolina’s Institute of Marine Sciences. He holds a joint appointment with the Departments of Earth, Marine and Environmental Sciences and Environmental Sciences and Engineering. His collaborative research addresses microbially-mediated nutrient cycling and primary production dynamics, environmental controls and management of harmful algal (specifically cyanobacterial) blooms. Dr. Paerl’s research spans freshwater lakes, reservoirs (including ones used as drinking water supplies), estuarine and coastal marine waters in the US and globally (see: https://paerllab.web.unc.edu/research/). He has published over 350 peer reviewed articles and book chapters on these subjects. His work has been supported by the NSF, EPA, NIH, NOAA/NC Sea Grant, USDA, The NC Water Resources Research Institute, the UNC Collaboratory, the California Bay Delta Science Program, various State environmental agencies and private foundations, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Science and Technology and the Netherlands Academy of Sciences. He also manages several estuarine water quality monitoring and assessment programs, including the Neuse River Estuary (NC) Modeling and Monitoring Program, ModMon (https://paerllab.web.unc.edu/projects/modmon/) and the Ferry-based Water Quality Monitoring Program for the Pamlico Sound System, FerryMon (https://paerllab.web.unc.edu/projects/ferrymon/). Dr. Paerl has supervised over 70 graduate students, 12 post-docs, and advises undergraduate students at UNC-CH as well as other institutions. He received the 2003 G. Evelyn Hutchinson Award from the Association of the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), and the 2011 Odum Award from the Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (CERF) for addressing the causes, consequences and controls of eutrophication and harmful algal blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In 2015, he was named a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), and in 2022 he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the US Harmful Algal Bloom Committee. He is a fellow of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences and a holds honorary joint faculty positions at the Hohai University and the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, both located in Nanjing, China.

    Dr. Joseph (Joey) Crosswell is a senior research scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). Dr. Crosswell’s core research examines connectivity of coastal systems, particularly carbon and nutrient cycling between sediment, ocean, and atmosphere (see https://people.csiro.au/c/j/joey-crosswell). He is particularly interested in exploring diverse and remote coastal systems, ranging from mangroves to mesoscale eddies and from arid tropical estuaries in northern Australia to fjords in southern Chile. Dr. Crosswell has served as Chief Scientist on 22 research voyages at CSIRO, leading cruises to more than 70 estuaries and coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem as well as voyages to other remote regions of Australia, Patagonia, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia. He has supervised seven graduate students, two postdocs and several undergraduate students at institutions spanning six countries.

    A key element of Dr. Crosswell’s research involves developing new tools and methods for coastal observations. These include instrument platforms for measuring carbonate chemistry and physical processes in estuaries, which have been deployed over the past 15 years in waters along the mid-Atlantic coast of the USA, the east Australian coast, and in Chilean fjords. More recently, Dr. Crosswell has collaborated with CSIRO researcher-engineers on the application of computer vision to detect crown of thorns starfish outbreaks in the Great Barrier Reef as well as machine learning models for mapping seagrass across the Indo-Pacific.

    Dr. Crosswell plays an active role in advancing national and international research strategy and collaboration. Since 2020, he has been co-leader of the research domain Coastal Mapping and Monitoring within CSIRO’s Environment Business Unit. He has served as a nominated author for expert scientific assessments in the USA and Australia, such as the 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report. He is a founding member of an international working group focused on feedbacks between carbon cycling and extreme events, e.g., tropical cyclones, floods, and wildfires. He leads research and field studies for multi-lateral initiatives exploring blue carbon as a resource for climate action and sustainable livelihoods across the Indo-Pacific. Dr. Crosswell has received an Innovators Fellowship from the Deshpande Foundation, a Collaborative Research Award from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, a Research Impact Award from the University of North Carolina, and the 2022 CSIRO Collaboration medal.