1st Edition

Community Biodiversity Management
Promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources





ISBN 9780415502207
Published May 20, 2013 by Routledge
456 Pages 70 B/W Illustrations

USD $69.95

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Book Description

The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are issues that have been high on the policy agenda since the first Earth Summit in Rio in 1992. As part of efforts to implement in situ conservation, a methodology referred to as community biodiversity management (CBM) has been developed by those engaged in this arena. CBM contributes to the empowerment of farming communities to manage their biological resources and make informed decisions on the conservation and use of agrobiodiversity.

This book is the first to set out a clear overview of CBM as a methodology for meeting socio-environmental changes. CBM is shown to be a key strategy that promotes community resilience, and contributes to the conservation of plant genetic resources. The authors present the underlying concepts and theories of CBM as well as its methodology and practices, and introduce case studies primarily from Brazil, Ethiopia, France, India, and Nepal. Contributors include farmers, leaders of farmers’ organizations, professionals from conservation and development organizations, students and scientists.

The book offers inspiration to all those involved in the conservation and use of agrobiodiversity within livelihood development and presents ideas for the implementation of farmers’ rights. The wide collection of experiences illustrates the efforts made by communities throughout the world to cope with change while using diversity and engaging in learning processes. It links these grassroots efforts with debates in policy arenas as a means to respond to the unpredictable changes, such as climate change, that communities face in sustaining their livelihoods.

Table of Contents

Foreword

Prof M.S. Swaminathan 

Preface and Acknowledgements 

Walter Simon de Boef 

Section 1: Community biodiversity management and in situ conservation 

1.1 Community biodiversity management: general introduction 
Marja Thijssen, Walter de Boef, Abishkar Subedi, Nivaldo Peroni and Elizabeth O’Keeffe 

1.2 The evolution of community biodiversity management as a methodology for implementing in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity in Nepal 
Abishkar Subedi, Pitambar Shrestha, Madhusudan Upadhyay and Bhuwon Sthapit 

1.3 Community biodiversity management: defined and contextualized 
Pratap Shrestha, Pitambar Shrestha, Abishkar Subedi, Nivaldo Peroni and Walter de Boef 

1.4 On-farm management of plant genetic resources through community seed banks in Ethiopia 
Regassa Feyissa, Genene Gezu, Bayush Tsegaye and Temesgen Dessalegn 

1.5 The diversity kit: restoring farmers’ sovereignty over food, seed and genetic resources, in Guaraciaba, Brazil 
Adriano Canci, Clístenes Antônio Guadagnin, Jair Pedro Henke and Luciane Lazzari 

1.6 Practices that contribute to the empowerment of farming communities for managing their agrobiodiversity in Asia
Joya Doctor 

1.7 The maison de la semence paysanne and diversity platform: promoting agrobiodiversity in France 
Jennifer Kendall and Elodie Gras 

1.8 Community biodiversity management and in situ conservation of plant genetic resources 
Walter de Boef and Marja Thijssen 

Section 2: Practices contributing to community biodiversity management 

2.1 Practices contributing to community biodiversity management: introduction 
Walter de Boef and Abishkar Subedi 

2.2 Enhancing awareness on the value of local biodiversity in Nepal 
Pitambar Shrestha, Abishkar Subedi and Bhuwon Sthapit 

2.3 Practices that contribute to promoting and appreciating Andean crops and identity in Cotacachi, Ecuador 
César Tapia and Hugo Carrera 

2.4 Community biodiversity registers in Nepal: enhancing the capabilities of communities to document, monitor and take control over their genetic resources 
Abishkar Subedi, Rachana Devkota, Indra Poudel and Shreeram Subedi 

2.5 Gene banks that promote on-farm management through the reintroduction of local varieties in Brazil 
Terezinha Dias, Maria Aldete J. da Fonseca Ferreira, Rosa Lía Barbieri, Flavia França Teixeira and Sérgio Guilherme de Azevedo 

2.6 Community seed reserves: enhancing sovereignty and resilience in Central America 
Mario Roberto Fuentes López and Sergio Romeo Alonzo Recinos 

2.7 Community seed banks in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil 
Emanoel Dias da Silva 

2.8 The community seed bank: a common driver for community biodiversity management  Pitambar Shrestha, Genene Gezu, Saujanendra Swain, Bertrand Lassaigne, Abishkar Subedi and Walter de Boef 

2.9 Community biodiversity management fund: promoting conservation through livelihood development in Nepal 
Pitambar Shrestha, Sajal Sthapit, Abishkar Subedi and Bhuwon Sthapit 

Section 3: People, biodiversity and landscapes 

3.1 People, biodiversity and landscapes: introduction 
Walter de Boef, Nivaldo Peroni and Natalia Hanazaki 

3.2 Traditional people and the conservation of biodiversity in Brazil 
Ana Luiza Assis, Sofia Zank, Nivaldo Peroni and Natalia Hanazaki 

3.3 Opportunities for ethnobotany to contribute to community biodiversity management 
Natalia Hanazaki, Elaine Mitie Nakamura, Bianca Lindner and Walter de Boef 

3.4 The domestication of landscapes and cultural keystone species in a context of community biodiversity management, in Brazil  
Nivaldo Peroni, Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque, Ana Luiza de Assis, Ernani Machado de Freitas Lins Neto 

3.5 Caívas and their contribution to the conservation of Atlantic forest landscapes in Brazil 
Maurício Sedrez dos Reis, Camila Vieira da Silva, Andrea Gabriela Mattos, Alex Zechini, Adelar Mantovani and Nivaldo Peroni 

3.6 Community management of forest coffee landscapes in Ethiopia 
Regassa Feyissa, Genene Gezu, Bayush Tsegaye and Kassahun Tesfaye 

3.7 Promoting the community management of garcinia genetic resources in the central Western Ghats, India  
Vasudeva Ramesh, Narasimha Hegde and Bhuwon Sthapit 

3.8 The sustainable development reserve: an option for securing livelihoods in Imbituba, Brazil 
Sofia Zank, Ana Luiza Assis, Marlene Borges, Nivaldo Peroni and Natalia Hanazaki 

Section 4: Agrobiodiversity, livelihoods and markets  

4.1 Agrobiodiversity, livelihoods and markets: introduction 
Walter de Boef, Marja Thijssen and Monika Sopov 

4.2 Value addition and marketing of local citrus products in Nepal 
Bharat Bhandari, Bijaya Raj Devkota and Sajal Sthapit  

4.3 Creating an economic stake for conserving the diversity of small millets in the Kolli Hills, India 
E.D. Israel Oliver King, S. Bala Ravi and Stefano Padulosi 

4.4 Value chain development and the regional branding of Kalajeera rice in Jeypore, India 
Sushanta Sekhar Chaudhury and Saujanendra Swain  

4.5 Marketing local rice varieties in Vietnam, supported by their participatory genetic enhancement and intellectual property rights 
Frédéric Thomas and Dao The Anh 

4.6 The dynamic management and regional marketing of a local wheat variety by farmers in the Lubéron, France 
Guy Kastler and Anne-Charlotte Moÿ   

Section 5: Participatory crop improvement in a context of community biodiversity management   

5.1 Participatory crop improvement in a context of community biodiversity management: introduction 
Walter de Boef, Marja Thijssen and Bhuwon Sthapit 

5.2 Grassroots breeding of local crops and varieties in support of community biodiversity management and resilience in Nepal 
Bhuwon Sthapit, Kamal Khadka, Pitambar Shrestha, Shreeram Subedi and Indra Poudel 

5.3 Participatory domestication of the fruit tree species, feijoa (Acca sellowiana) in Brazil 
Karine dos Santos, Nivaldo Peroni, Raymond P. Guries, Joel Donazzolo and Rubens Onofre Nodari 

5.4 Farmer and participatory maize breeding: increasing farmers’ autonomy and promoting the use of diversity in France 
Bertrand Lassaigne and Jennifer Kendall 

5.5 Participatory genetic enhancement of the Jethobudho rice variety in Nepal 
Sachesh Silwal, Sanjaya Gyawali, Bharat Bhandari and Bhuwon Sthapit 

5.6 Providing scientific support to farmers using local rice diversity in Jeypore, India 
Sushanta Sekhar Chaudhury and Saujanendra Swain 

5.7 The participatory genetic enhancement of a local maize variety in Brazil 
Juliana Bernardi Ogliari, Volmir Kist and Adriano Canci 

5.8 Participatory crop improvement in Central America: encouraging farmers to use local varieties 
Sergio Romeo Alonzo Recinos, Mario Roberto Fuentes López, Juan Carlos Rosas Sotomayor, Silvio Aguirre and Rolando Herrera  

5.9 Participatory varietal selection for enhancing farmers’ access to quality seed in Ethiopia 
Hussein Mohammed, Tadesse Desalegn, Fetien Abay and Marja Thijssen 

5.10 Supporting farmers’ access to the global gene pool and participatory selection in taro in the Pacific 
Tolo Iosefa, Mary Taylor, Danny Hunter and Valerie Saena Tuia 

Section 6: Community biodiversity management, genetic resource policies and rights   

6.1 Genetic resource policies and rights: opportunities and limitations for community biodiversity management 
Niels Louwaars, S. Bala Ravi, Pratap Shrestha, Juliana Santilli, Regassa Feyissa and Walter de Boef 

6.2 Farmers’ rights in times of change: illusion or reality? 
Regine Andersen 

6.3 Farmers’ rights, their scope and legal protection in India 
S. Bala Ravi 

6.4 Access and benefit-sharing: putting a global legal concept into practice through local initiatives 
Ronnie Vernooy and Manuel Ruiz 

6.5 Access and benefit-sharing in Brazil: towards the appropriation of the commons
Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque, Natalia Hanazaki and Juliana Santilli 

6.6 The European Union directive on conservation varieties and its incompatibility with on-farm management of plant genetic resources 
Guy Kastler and Anne-Charlotte Moÿ 

6.7 Local varieties, informal seed systems and the Seed Law: reflections from Brazil 
Juliana Santilli 

6.8 Seed and variety regulations: obstructing informal seed systems and the use of local varieties by farmers in Europe

Guy Kastler 

Section 7: Community biodiversity management and resilience   

7.1 New professionalism and governance in plant genetic resource management 
Walter de Boef, Marja Thijssen and Abishkar Subedi 

7.2 Community biodiversity management and empowerment 
Walter de Boef, Karèn Verhoosel and Marja Thijssen 

7.3 Community biodiversity management: promoting resilience 
Walter de Boef, Marja Thijssen, Nivaldo Peroni and Abishkar Subedi 

Bibliography 

Index

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Editor(s)

Biography

Walter Simon de Boef is Visiting Professor at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil, and Associate Consultant at the Centre for Development Innovation (CDI) of Wageningen University and Research Centre (Wageningen UR), the Netherlands. 

Abishkar Subedi worked at Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD), Nepal, until 2012 when he assumed the role of Agrobiodiversity and Seed Sector Development Specialist at the Centre for Development Innovation (CDI) of Wageningen UR, the Netherlands. 

Nivaldo Peroni is Professor at UFSC, Brazil. 

Marja Thijssen is Agrobiodiversity and Seed Sector Development Specialist at the Centre for Development Innovation (CDI) of Wageningen UR, the Netherlands. 

Elizabeth O’Keeffe is a freelance copy-editor based in Brazil.